Importance Of Research Methods In Monitoring And Evaluation Pdf

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What associations does this word bring to mind? Do you see evaluation as an invaluable tool to improve your program? Or do you find it intimidating because you don't know much about it? The purpose of this introductory section is to provide you with some useful background information on evaluation. Evaluation is a process that critically examines a program.

Evaluation Methods

Open Access PDF. About Open Access. Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work.

Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. What we need to know [link]. Some pitfalls to avoid [link]. What we need to do [link]. How to choose what to monitor or evaluate [link]. Select the most appropriate indicators [link]. Collect the data [link]. Analyse the data [link]. Act on the result [link].

We will originally have set objectives, i. Monitoring refers to ongoing assessment of our progress. It should be set up as part of our routine programme management and is ideally done by both programme and community members together. It uses the record systems we have built into the programme. Evaluation refers to a systematic review of the programme outcomes and impact often at the end of a funding cycle.

It often involves an outside evaluation team. If monitoring is carried out well, evaluation will be easier. We often start with good ideas and ambitious objectives.

As time goes on, these may get lost in day-to-day activities or problems See Figure 9. Regular monitoring will also identify problems early so they can be corrected, and improvements can be suggested.

Figure 9. Reproduced courtesy of David Gifford. Reproduced courtesy of Eleanor Duncan. Community members will work with us in this process. Findings and results will need to be presented in such a way that the community sees the benefits and problems and is motivated to participate in improvements see Chapter 2. In practice, evaluations are often carried out because donors want confirmation that their money is being well spent. But all stakeholders—programme, community, p.

An evaluation showing good results can help our programme to become better known and a model for other programmes. We can use Twitter, Facebook and other forms of social media to make findings known to wider audiences. If it uses a rigorous methodology it can be published to share the learning and raise the profile of the programme.

Governments may want to know what results the programme is achieving and whether it is reaching district and national targets. If we are involved in specific programmes, e. Civil society organizations involved in community-based health care CBHC are often able to achieve more effective results at community level than government.

Evaluation and the return of regular monitoring figures should enable us to demonstrate this and increase our credibility Figure 9. The definitions in Box 9. Box 9. The section on participatory appraisal PA in Chapter 6 should be read alongside this section. The title of the book Nothing about us without us 2 provides a slogan to remind us that the community needs to be involved closely at every stage, rather than being marked by outsiders as though they were taking an examination.

This is especially important when vulnerable community members are monitored, as with the people living with disability and those with mental health issues. Monitoring can be done by the health team and the community together, but it will need to be planned carefully using appropriately simple participatory techniques. The team would need to have, or be taught, necessary skills and good monitoring systems would need to be in place to feed into the evaluation. The term community-based participatory evaluation is sometimes used.

In practice, final impact evaluations usually involve outside experts who come to work alongside the health team and community. The success of using outsiders depends on several conditions. Firstly, the evaluation must be planned in advance. It may last one or two weeks, and will need to be done at a time of year when neither the health team nor community is overworked, nor the weather too extreme.

Essential programme activities should continue, not least because evaluators will want to observe the programme at work. Secondly, the evaluators must have clear terms of reference, i. They should be sensitive to the local culture, and have an affirming attitude. Terms of reference should be p.

Evaluators should be carefully briefed both by donor and programme before starting work. There are several advantages of using outsiders these include involving experts with special skills who will be able to advise on effective methods of carrying out the evaluation. Because of their lack of bias, results from outsiders may be more accurate as the evaluators have no personal interest in the achievements of the programme.

Finally, outsiders may receive more accurate feedback from the community, and community members may be readier to tell outsiders how they really feel.

Disadvantages of using outsiders include higher costs in terms of time and money, although a donor agency often funds the evaluation. Also, the visiting experts may not know the local customs, language, or situation. It is therefore helpful if evaluators are familiar with the country, region, and type of programme they are evaluating. Finally, published material from evaluations or visits may be politically insensitive or unhelpful to the community.

If the evaluation includes any research that may be written up, this must be clearly discussed beforehand. Annual reports are still written, with patient numbers, immunizations and procedures carried out. Such figures may accurately record the activity being carried out, but p.

It is easy to become overwhelmed by challenges and needs; record systems and reports can turn into a nightmare. Obviously, any lack of quality in reporting or recording information is serious and we need to act, including being honest with any agency that is helping to fund the programme.

The list of questions in Box 9. What effect does the presence of the project have on the local community? If the project did not exist, what would happen?

A story may help to show the project impact. What do project staff consider the three most common diseases in the project area? What effect has the project had on the prevalence of these diseases during the last three years?

Is there any statistical evidence? Is the local community involved in this project? If yes, how is their involvement facilitated e. How often do project staff meet with community members? If there is no community involvement, why? Are there any plans to increase this?

If not, why? Do volunteers from the community work in the project e. Approximately what number are there currently active and newly trained in the last year? What are the three most serious problems which have a negative effect on the running of the project? How have these problems been addressed? How successful have these efforts been?

What do project staff consider would be needed to solve them? What may stop them implementing these objectives? How do they plan to overcome these problems? Some programmes go to the opposite extreme, which can happen especially if they are very bureaucratic or run by managers interested in statistics. Collecting figures and producing good reports becomes more important than working for long-term improvements in the community.

Sometimes programmes are required to provide huge numbers of reports. We must therefore ask donors to request only vital information, and we should only agree to evaluations that are genuinely useful for the programme. Programmes should clearly negotiate with donors, and consider refusing funding if it is tied to a very heavy monitoring schedule or to many new indicators.

Thus, the role of a programme manager is to resist adding indicators. One suggestion is that indicators should be reviewed every year for usefulness and any ineffectual or burdensome ones discarded.

When we gather qualitative information, the articulate and well-off usually do most of the talking, while the poor may have less chance to express their views.

Sometimes the overall health of a p. We can monitor this by keeping separate figures for different socio-economic groups. Similarly, we can keep separate figures for men and women, or for different language groups, or for those living with disability.

Evaluation: What is it and why do it?

Follow CompassforSbc. Click here to access this Guide in Arabic. It is a living document that should be referred to and updated on a regular basis. This will ensure there is a system in place to monitor the program and evaluate success. This guide is designed primarily for program managers or personnel who are not trained researchers themselves but who need to understand the rationale and process of conducting research. This guide can help managers to support the need for research and ensure that research staff have adequate resources to conduct the research that is needed to be certain that the program is evidence based and that results can be tracked over time and measured at the end of the program. How to Develop a Logic Model.

An evaluation can use quantitative or qualitative data, and often includes both. Both methods provide important information for evaluation, and both can improve community engagement. These methods are rarely used alone; combined, they generally provide the best overview of the project. This section describes both quantitative and qualitative methods, and Table 7. Surveys may be self- or interviewer-administered and conducted face-to-face or by telephone, by mail, or online.

As we monitor and evaluate projects, we use many different kinds of qualitative methods, and each of these methods gives us different kinds of data. Depending on our evaluation statement of work or performance monitoring plan, we use different methods on particular occasions to elicit certain kinds of data. As we craft our qualitative or mixed method evaluation designs, we should consider what qualitative methods we would use, and what kind of data those methods would give us. Evaluators have a large toolkit of qualitative methods, and we use each of these methods under different circumstances to gather different kinds of data. As Nightengale and Rossman explain, we need to decide what our unit of analysis will be; the number of sites that we will use; how we will choose those sites; what data we need; and what method will give us that data. We also need to consider Bamberger, Rugh, and Mabry's constraints of time, budget, data, and politics as we plan our qualitative research and evaluations. We should pay special attention to ethical considerations, as qualitative researchers tend to spend a lot of time with informants, gathering sensitive data in the process.


Open Access PDF. About Open Access. Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work.

These constraints can result in excluding important components of the populations , if taken too literally. Conversely individuals declining consent is important to document as well, analyzing why this refusal is occurring. Consent needs to be made context-sensitive and flexible to avoid excluding the voices of marginalized populations while respecting the rights of individuals and communities to refrain from engaging in the research process or evaluation. The following Evaluative Research Mini Course is an expansion of the content presented in our step-by-step guide. This mini course explores some more advanced topics that would more typically be addressed in a research project.

Jump to navigation. Sometimes the same word is used but to mean quite different things; other times different words are used to mean the same thing.

Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Хейл. Но Стратмор смотрел на молодого сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности. Коммандер спускался по лестнице, ни на мгновение не сводя с него глаз. Он быстро подошел к ним и остановился в нескольких сантиметрах от дрожащего Чатрукьяна.

Он схватил убитого за запястье; кожа была похожа на обгоревший пенопласт, тело полностью обезвожено. Коммандер зажмурился, сильнее сжал запястье и потянул. Труп сдвинулся на несколько сантиметров. Он потянул сильнее.

Он повернулся, но было уже поздно. Чьи-то стальные руки прижали его лицо к стеклу. Панк попытался высвободиться и повернуться.

На нем располагался щедрый набор фирменных открыток отеля, почтовая бумага, конверты и ручки. Беккер вложил в конверт чистый листок бумаги, надписал его всего одним словом: Росио - и вернулся к консьержу. - Извините, что я снова вас беспокою, - сказал он застенчиво.

Он вытер их о брюки и попробовал. На этот раз створки двери чуть-чуть разошлись. Сьюзан, увидев, что дело пошло, попыталась помочь Стратмору. Дверь приоткрылась на несколько сантиметров.

Под потолком завыли сирены. - Информация уходит. - Вторжение по всем секторам. Сьюзан двигалась как во сне.


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to monitoring and | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. evaluation methods; it also explores the importance.

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Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

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The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to Using Mixed Methods in Monitoring and Evaluation: central importance of quantitative evaluations, question the exclusive reliance placed by the.

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