# Data Structure Interview Questions And Answers Pdf

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*A data structure can be any organization, management, and storage format of data that allows efficient access and modification. It is a collection of data values, relationships amongst them, and the various functions or operations that can be applied to the data. Data structures are a foundational concept of programming which is immensely utilized in algorithm design.*

- 300+ TOP DATA STRUCTURES Interview Questions and Answers pdf
- Important Data Structures Interview Questions with Answers
- Top Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers

*It seeks to find ways to make data access more efficient.*

A list of most frequently asked Data Structure interview questions and answers are given below. The data structure is a way that specifies how to organize and manipulate the data. It also defines the relationship between them. Data Structures are the central part of many computer science algorithms as they enable the programmers to handle the data in an efficient way.

## 300+ TOP DATA STRUCTURES Interview Questions and Answers pdf

A data structure can be any organization, management, and storage format of data that allows efficient access and modification. It is a collection of data values, relationships amongst them, and the various functions or operations that can be applied to the data. Data structures are a foundational concept of programming which is immensely utilized in algorithm design. Hence, it is important for any programmer, irrespective of the programming language , to have a good understanding of data structures.

Any programming language interview can have a few or many questions based on data structures. Here are the top data structure interview questions and answers with their respective answers for you:.

Answer : A data structure offers a convenient way of organizing as well as manipulating the data. Simply put, it allows the data to be used in an effective manner. There is a galore of data structures and each of them is suitable for a distinct set of applications.

For instance, compiler implementations use hash tables for looking up identifiers. Similarly, B-trees are suitable for the implementation of databases. Data structures are virtually applied to all areas relying on data. Some of the most important ones are:. Answer : If the elements of a data structure form a sequence or a linear list then it is called a linear data structure. On the other hand, non-linear data structures are those in which the traversal of nodes is done in a non-linear way.

Arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues are examples of linear data structures, while graphs and trees are those of non-linear data structures. Answer: In data structures, data is organized in a way that makes it efficient to be used. Some practical applications of data structures are:. Answer : Following are the various operations that can be performed on a data structure:.

Answer: In a postfix expression, the operator is fixed after the operands. Some examples are:. Although DFS Depth First Search of a graph makes use of a stack, it can also be implemented using recursion that uses function call stack.

Answer: If an array has more than two dimensions, it is called a multidimensional array. They are also called an array of arrays. For example, a 3-D array will look like,. To access each element, we need three nested loops, say i,j,k, so that we can get the value as ndarr[i][j][k]. Push, pop, and peek are the basic operations of a stack. Dequeue, enqueue, front, and rear are basic operations on a queue. Like a stack, a queue can be implemented using arrays and linked lists. In a stack, the item that is most recently added is removed first.

Contrary to this, the item least recently added is removed first in case of a queue. Answer : A binary search is an algorithm that starts with searching in the middle element. If the middle element is not the target element then it further checks whether to continue searching the lower half of the higher half. The process continues until the target element is found.

Answer : We can reference all the elements in a one-dimension array using an indexed loop. The counter runs from 0 to the maximum array size, say n, minus one.

All elements of the one-dimension array are referenced in sequence by using the loop counter as the array subscript. In this approach, recently stored data is the one to be extracted first. Following this approach, the data that is stored the least recently will be extracted first.

Answer: In a Linked List data, elements are stored linearly, but the physical placements do not give the order in the memory; instead, each element points to the next node. The last one points to a terminator indicating the end of the list.

There are many types of Linked List — single, double, circular, multiple. A simple singly LinkedList can be drawn as:. Answer : Dynamic memory allocation helps in storing simple structured data types. Moreover, it can combine separately allocated structured blocks for forming composite structures that contract and expand as required. A variable assigned with a NULL value represents an empty value. The VOID is used for identifying pointers having no initial size. Answer: We can use void pointers.

Unsigned char pointers are another option. This way, we can store any data type in the list. Answer : The total amount of memory to be allocated or reserved in the case of a variable declaration depends on the data type used. For instance, declaring an integer type variable reserves 4 bytes of memory space while declaring a double variable reserve 8 bytes of the available memory. Answer : Data abstraction helps in dividing complex data problems into smaller, easy-to-manage parts.

It starts with specifying all the involved data objects and the various operations to be performed on the same without stressing too much on the way data is stored. Answer: In a circular LinkedList, the last pointer points to the head first node. We take the last node pointer because it saves us from traversing the entire list while inserting a node in the beginning or end. Assuming it is, we will proceed with checking whether the tree is empty or not. If it is empty, then the new item will be inserted in the root node.

However, if the tree is non-empty then we will refer to the key of the new item. Answer : The selection sort begins with finding the smallest element. It is switched with the element present at subscript 0. Next, the smallest element in the remaining subarray is located and switched with the element residing in the subscript 1.

The aforementioned process is repeated until the biggest element is placed at the subscript n-1, where n represents the size of the given array. Answer: In-order traversal is a depth-first traversal. The method is called recursively to perform traversal on a binary tree. The code is as follows:. Answer: To find the height using recursion, we find the maximum of the height of subtrees on the left and right sides and then add it with the root.

Answer : For signed numbers, the first bit is reserved for indicating whether the number is positive or negative. Hence, it has one bit less for storing the value. Unlike signed numbers, unsigned numbers have all the bits available for storing the number.

The effect of the aforementioned can be seen in the value range available to signed and unsigned numbers. While an unsigned 8-bit number can have a range of 0 to , an 8-bit signed number has a range varying from to Answer : Except for pointers, all declaration statements result in a fixed memory reservation.

Instead of allocating memory for storing data, a pointer declaration results in allocating memory for storing the address of the pointer variable. This means that data manipulation follows a specific sequence where the latest data element is the one to be retrieved first.

Adding or retrieving an element in an array is done by referring to the array index. The measure of the balance is given by the difference of the heights of the subtrees from the root node of the AVL tree.

Answer : Following are the various differences between an array and a linked list:. Answer : In a linked list, each element is a distinct object. Like arrays, linked lists are a linear type of data structure. In addition to data, every element of a linked list comprises a reference to the next element.

Various types of linked lists are:. Answer : It is possible to implement a stack using two queues. Further, there are two options; either to make the push operation costly or the pop operation costly. A queue can also be implemented with two stacks. Moreover, there are two options; either to make the enQueue operation costly or the deQueue operation costly. Two data structures are used for implementing an LRU cache:. Answer : Both insertion and selection approaches maintain two sub-lists, sorted and unsorted.

Each takes one element from the unsorted sub-list and place it into the sorted sub-list. The distinction between the two sorting processes lies in the treatment of the current element. Insertion sort takes the current element and places it in the sorted sublist at the appropriate location. Selection sort, on the other hand, searches for the minimum value in the unsorted sub-list and replaces the same with the present element.

Answer : The shell sort can be understood as a variant of the insertion sort. The approach divides the entire list into smaller sub-lists based on some gap variable. Each sub-list is then sorted using insertion sort. Answer : The process for visiting all the nodes of a tree is called tree traversal.

It always starts from the root node and there are three ways of doing it:. Answer : A spanning tree is a subset of a graph that has all the vertices but with the minimum possible number of edges. Neither a spanning tree can be disconnected and nor does it have cycles.

## Important Data Structures Interview Questions with Answers

Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand. View the solution for the problems with feel and good user interface; easily go through all questions and answers. You can easily answer the interview questions based on Data Structures by practicing the exercises given below. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return addresses of the function calls. Every recursive function has its equivalent iterative non-recursive function. Even when such equivalent iterative procedures are written, explicit stack is to be used.

Proper preparation is always advised. Data structures and algorithm questions are an important part of any programming job interview, especially one for Data Science and Java-based role. Sound knowledge of data structures and algorithms will help you stand apart from the herd. The following Data Structure interview questions will help you crack your next interview! The data structure is the way data is organized stored and manipulated for retrieval and access. It also defines the way different sets of data relate to one another, establishing relationships and forming algorithms. A data structure is linear if all its elements or data items are arranged in a sequence or a linear order.

What are the major data structures used in the following areas : Rdbms, network data model and Hierarchical data model. If you are using c language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, What pointer type will you use? It is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this. Void pointer is capable of storing pointer to any type as it is a generic pointer type. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return addresses of the function calls.

## Top Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers

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Knowing how to store data and manipulate the same easily will give programmers an edge over the competition. Data structures are used across the world in almost every aspect of data storage one can think of. This means that the questions you might find in an interview can be challenging. Data Structures are extremely integral in a variety of fields. Companies across the globe invest in millions of dollars to fully integrate their data handling systems with efficient data structures rather than conventional methods.

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