Buddhism And Taoism Face To Face Pdf


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Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval China

Christine Mollier. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Mollier does not simply assert that these traditions influenced one another; she reveals in breathtaking detail the wide array of techniques used by Buddhists and Taoists as they appropriated and transformed the texts and icons of their rivals.

Mollier's thorough study of the "concrete and practical aspects" of Buddhist-Taoist interaction allows her to see these traditions in a new light: "What we find in these examples is not mere hybridization or passive borrowing, but a unique type of scriptural production, whereby the two traditions mirrored one another" p.

In chapter 1, "The Heavenly Kitchens," Mollier examines "an unmistakable case of Buddhist plagiarism" p. These incantations also formed the core of the Taoist text. Mollier shows that the Five Kitchens became the Three Kitchens in the Buddhist text, clumsily emphasizing the Three Jewels, but the five rhymed incantations remained, leaving the reader no doubt about who was doing the forgery. In addition to describing the history of the Chinese tradition of "heavenly kitchens" and "mobile kitchens," Mollier also gives examples of early Chinese Buddhist texts that emphasized the miraculous appearance of divine food.

This was a topic particularly suitable for our Buddhist forger: a tradition with a long and venerable history in China, for which some affinities already existed in Buddhist scripture. Mollier shows not only how this text was forged, she cleverly points out that without the relatively lucid exposition in the Buddhist text, the Taoist rites of the Kitchens would be impenetrable to us. The Taoist text consists entirely of verses so esoteric that Mollier does not even attempt a translation, but the Buddhist version may preserve information about Taoist practice that would otherwise be lost p.

These forgeries not only show us how Buddhism borrowed from Taoism; by mirroring the Taoist scriptures they help the historian to reconstruct a more detailed vision of Taoist practices. This, according to Mollier, is no mere apocryphon.

It is "an appropriation, even an outright copy of a Taoist work" p. Like any bureaucratic system, this one could be gamed, and practitioners could bribe or cajole the bureaucrats to increase their account and extend their lifespan. Taoist technical terms are simply replaced by Buddhist terms, and the Taoist introduction is simply excised. Otherwise, the texts are identical p.

Mollier gives a brief and effective demonstration of this "cut-and-paste" technique when she compares a segment of these scriptures, line by line, in a dual-column translation pp. This text, extant in Chinese, Uighur, Mongolian, and Tibetan versions, has been studied in detail by Herbert Franke, who showed that it was written on the basis of a Taoist prototype.

Mollier's exploration of these Dunhuang materials is most illuminating. She shows that the Beidou cult manifested at Dunhuang as a form of "parareligious medicine," a product not of vulgar folklore but of elite, government sanctioned religio-medical techniques pp.

Mollier's conclusion pp. Mollier also demonstrates the remarkable iconographical continuity of Jiuku tianzun, showing how iconographical details recorded in the writings of Taoist savant Du Guangting comport with modern Taoist representations of Jiuku tianzun. Mollier concludes with some reflections on the role of popular religion in China.

Surely, Mollier argues, even the most uneducated person would detect some differences between a Buddhist discourse and a Taoist discourse, given the former's emphasis on taking refuge in the Three Jewels? This third class of specialists in recipes, working on the margins of the Taoist and Buddhist organizations, belonged to the milieu of astrologers, diviners, medicine men, and other experts in parareligious techniques. Permanent actors on the Chinese cultural stage and often custodians of the ancestral patrimony, they are certainly not to be relegated to the amorphous category of 'popular' religion" p.

Mollier has shown that in many of her case studies, the ritual practices remained stable, while technical terms, frame stories, and venerable characters were altered. This suggests a common fount of available technical practices, all which could be integrated into competing religious frameworks and narratives.

Mollier's work in this volume is brilliant. She deftly navigates through manuscripts, canonical texts, archaeological remains, and art-historical evidence. By focusing on five very different instances of religious interaction, Mollier shows us how details matter, how narratives of Buddhist-Taoist "influence" or "appropriation" should not be carelessly invoked without first doing the hard work of philology, intellectual history, and art history.

Occasionally, Mollier slips into vagueness or overconfident guesswork when describing the motivations of the Buddhist and Taoist forgers. Her language here is startlingly mercantile: Buddhists and Taoists struggle to make their texts "marketable" p. To this reader, at least, such claims are not at all obvious.

An effective ritual technique or a particularly powerful sacred narrative simply cannot have been uttered by Laozi. The record must be set straight. Like any ascription of motivation, this too is a mere guess, but it may be a more generous guess than Mollier's vision of Buddhists and Taoists as Madison Avenue marketeers.

This is, of course, a minor quibble. Mollier's work serves as a helpful reminder that religious appropriations take place through a variety of media and through a multitude of complex interactions. She has shown us that as the Buddhist and Taoist traditions mirrored one another, we cannot be content to simply study one tradition or the other. The competent Sinologist must be catholic in her approach, knowing that these traditions constructed themselves and their opponents through intricate sequences of contestation and appropriation.

Copyright c by H-Net, all rights reserved. Citation: Ryan Overbey. H-Buddhism, H-Net Reviews. July, For any other proposed use, contact the Reviews editorial staff at hbooks mail.

Add a Comment. Michigan State University Department of History.

Religion in China

Christine Mollier expertly draws not only on published canonical sources but also on manuscript and visual material, as well as worldwide modern scholarship, to give us the most sophisticated book-length study yet produced on the textual relations between the Buddhist and Taoist traditions. Throughout, the urgent concerns of medieval Chinese people—life, health, protection, salvation—are sensitively and elegantly evoked. Anyone interested in Chinese religions, in the ways in which religious texts are formed, and in cross-religious interactions should want to read this book. With Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face, Christine Mollier advances the debate and effectively proposes new methods, new sources, and new conclusions. Mollier demonstrates that mutual self-fashioning in the history of religion ought best be understood through the sustained study of the concrete and practical aspects of religious life. Utilizing a dazzling array of sources—including medieval manuscripts, liturgies, canonical texts, statues, and hagiography—this eloquent intervention sets the standard for many decades to come.

Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval China

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Christine Mollier. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Mollier does not simply assert that these traditions influenced one another; she reveals in breathtaking detail the wide array of techniques used by Buddhists and Taoists as they appropriated and transformed the texts and icons of their rivals. Mollier's thorough study of the "concrete and practical aspects" of Buddhist-Taoist interaction allows her to see these traditions in a new light: "What we find in these examples is not mere hybridization or passive borrowing, but a unique type of scriptural production, whereby the two traditions mirrored one another" p.

Сьюзан сообщила Дэвиду, что ее работа заключается в изучении шифров, взламывании их ручными методами и передаче расшифрованных сообщений руководству.

Religion in China

Все, что угодно, только не шифр, не поддающийся взлому. Стратмор сурово посмотрел на. - Этот алгоритм создал один самых блестящих умов в криптографии. Сьюзан пришла в еще большее смятение: самые блестящие умы в криптографии работают в ее отделе, и уж она-то наверняка хоть что-нибудь услышала бы об этом алгоритме. - Кто? - требовательно сказала .

Труп сдвинулся на несколько сантиметров. Он потянул сильнее. Труп сдвинулся еще чуть-чуть. Тогда Стратмор напрягся и рванул тело изо всех сил. Внезапно его швырнуло назад, и он больно ударился спиной о кожух генератора.

Она вглядывалась в глаза Танкадо - и видела в них раскаяние. Он не хотел, чтобы это зашло так далеко, - говорила она.  - Он хотел нас спасти. Но снова и снова он протягивал руку, так, чтобы люди обратили внимание на кольцо. Он хотел объяснить им, но не. И все тянул и тянул к ним свои пальцы.


PDF | On Jan 1, , Alain Arrault published Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic Exchange in Medieval.


Persecution of Buddhists

Мы погибли. - Теряем фильтры Протокола! - раздался чей-то голос.  - Открылся третий уровень защиты! - Люди в комнате засуетились. На экране агент с короткой стрижкой безнадежно развел руками. - Сэр, ключа здесь .

4 Comments

Tabor P.
27.04.2021 at 03:41 - Reply

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Anconpaico
29.04.2021 at 07:14 - Reply

It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, monasteries, centers of learning, meditation centers, historical sites, or the incitement of hatred towards Buddhists.

Sophie B.
30.04.2021 at 04:13 - Reply

Religious observance in China is on the rise.

Evan C.
04.05.2021 at 03:04 - Reply

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