Viruses Plagues And History PdfBy Leperslesta In and pdf 17.04.2021 at 07:03 4 min read
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- 20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics in history
- History of virology
- Visualizing the History of Pandemics
In the new millennium, the centuries-old strategy of quarantine is becoming a powerful component of the public health response to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases.
20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics in history
As humans have spread across the world, so have infectious diseases. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant, though not every outbreak reaches pandemic level as COVID has. Disease and illnesses have plagued humanity since the earliest days, our mortal flaw. However, it was not until the marked shift to agrarian communities that the scale and spread of these diseases increased dramatically. Widespread trade created new opportunities for human and animal interactions that sped up such epidemics. Malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, influenza, smallpox, and others first appeared during these early years.
History of virology
The history of virology — the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause — began in the closing years of the 19th century. Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know that viruses existed. The first evidence of the existence of viruses came from experiments with filters that had pores small enough to retain bacteria. In , Dmitri Ivanovsky used one of these filters to show that sap from a diseased tobacco plant remained infectious to healthy tobacco plants despite having been filtered. Martinus Beijerinck called the filtered, infectious substance a "virus" and this discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology.
Psychiatry of Pandemics pp Cite as. Intermittent outbreaks of infectious diseases have had profound and lasting effects on societies throughout history. Those events have powerfully shaped the economic, political, and social aspects of human civilization, with their effects often lasting for centuries. Epidemic outbreaks have defined some of the basic tenets of modern medicine, pushing the scientific community to develop principles of epidemiology, prevention, immunization, and antimicrobial treatments. This chapter outlines some of the most notable outbreaks that took place in human history and are relevant for a better understanding of the rest of the material. Starting with religious texts, which heavily reference plagues, this chapter establishes the fundamentals for our understanding of the scope, social, medical, and psychological impact that some pandemics effected on civilization, including the Black Death a plague outbreak from the fourteenth century , the Spanish Flu of , and the more recent outbreaks in the twenty-first century, including SARS, Ebola, and Zika. Very few phenomena throughout human history have shaped our societies and cultures the way outbreaks of infectious diseases have; yet, remarkably little attention has been given to these phenomena in behavioral social science and in branches of medicine that are, at least in part, founded in social studies e.
Visualizing the History of Pandemics
Throughout the course of history, disease outbreaks have ravaged humanity, sometimes changing the course of history and, at times, signaling the end of entire civilizations. Here are 20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics, dating from prehistoric to modern times. Related: Spanish flu: The deadliest pandemic in history. About 5, years ago, an epidemic wiped out a prehistoric village in China.
Plague is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis and is still endemic in indigenous rodent populations of South and North America, Africa and Central Asia. In epidemics plague is transmitted to humans by the bite of the Oriental or Indian rat flea and the human flea. The primary hosts of the fleas are the black urban rat and the brown sewer rat.
Год назад высокопоставленный сотрудник аппарата Белого дома начал получать электронные письма с угрозами, отправляемые с некоего анонимного адреса. АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя. Хотя агентство имело возможность потребовать от переадресующей компании открыть ему имя этого клиента, оно решило прибегнуть к более изощренному методу - следящему устройству.
Единственное, что нам нужно, - осуществить такую подмену. Сьюзан сочла его план безукоризненным. Вот он - истинный Стратмор.
Он огляделся - кругом царил хаос. Наверху включились огнетушители. ТРАНСТЕКСТ стонал. Выли сирены.