Examples Of Qualitative And Quantitative Research Pdf

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examples of qualitative and quantitative research pdf

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Published on April 12, by Raimo Streefkerk.

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The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is abstract, very general and its value is usually taken for granted. In contrast, this article attempts to show that the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is unclear, poor and therefore of limited value and that its popularity risks leading to unfortunate consequences. Various arguments are presented for this conclusion. For example, it is argued that the heterogeneity of different stand-points on important issues among qualitative researchers for example with respect to the use of quantification and causal analysis makes the distinction as such unstable. Moreover, the presence of substantial overlap between many features of qualitative and quantitative research often makes it difficult to separate qualitative and quantitative research.

The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research methods is problematic

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Qualitative and Quantitative Research. Aliuden, Ph. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Quantitative ResearchQuantitative Research options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents are involved.

By definition, measurement must be objective, quantitative and statistically valid. Simply put, it"s about numbers, objective hard data. The sample size for a survey is calculated by statisticians using formulas to determine how large a sample size will be needed from a given population in order to achieve findings with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Many surveys are designed to produce a smaller margin of error. Qualitative ResearchQualitative Research is collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say.

Whereas, quantitative research refers to counts and measures of things, qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and descriptions of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective than quantitative research and uses very different methods of collecting information, mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups.

The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open-ended. Participants are asked to respond to general questions and the interviewer or group moderator probes and explores their responses to identify and define people"s perceptions, opinions and feelings about the topic or idea being discussed and to determine the degree of agreement that exists in the group.

The quality of the finding from qualitative research is directly dependent upon the skills, experience and sensitive of the interviewer or group moderator. This type of research is often less costly than surveys and is extremely effective in acquiring information about people"s communications needs and their responses to and views about specific communications. Basically, quantitative research is objective; qualitative is subjective.

Quantitative research seeks explanatory laws; qualitative research aims at in-depth description. Qualitative research measures what it assumes to be a static reality in hopes of developing universal laws.

Qualitative research is an exploration of what is assumed to be a dynamic reality. It does not claim that what is discovered in the process is universal, and thus, replicable. Common differences usually cited between these types of research include. In general, qualitative research generates rich, detailed and valid process data that contribute to in-depth understanding of the context. Quantitative research generates reliable population based and generalizable data and is well suited to establishing cause-and-effect relationships.

The decision of whether to choose a quantitative or a qualitative design is a philosophical question. Which methods to choose will depend on the nature of the project, the type of information needed the context of the study and the availability of recourses time, money, and human. It is important to keep in mind that these are two different philosophers, not necessarily polar opposites.

In fact, elements of both designs can be used together in mixed-methods studies. Combining of qualitative and quantitative research is becoming more and more common. Every method is different line of sight directed toward the same point, observing social and symbolic reality. The use of multiple lines of sight is called triangulation. It is a combination of two types of research.

It is also called pluralistic research. Advantages of combining both types of research include: Research development one approach is used to inform the other, such as using qualitative research to develop an instrument to be used in quantitative research. Increased validity confirmation of results by means of different data sources. Complementarities adding information, i. Creating new lines of thinking by the emergence of fresh perspectives and contradictions.

Barriers to integration include philosophical differences, cost, inadequate training and publication bias. Qualitative data analysisQualitative analysis involves a continual interplay between theory and analysis.

In analyzing qualitative data, we seek to discover patterns such as changes over time or possible causal links between variables. Everything is either 1 or 0"-Fred KerlingerThe aim is a complete, detailed description. The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.

Recommended during earlier phases of research projects. Recommended during latter phases of research projects. The design emerges as the study unfolds. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Researcher is the data gathering instrument. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.

Subjectiveindividual"s interpretation of events is important, e. Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized. Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail.

Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter. The issues invoke classic 'paradigm war'. It is important to focus also on how the techniques can be integrated; such as in mixed methods research. More good can come of social science researchers developing skills in both realms than debating which method is superior. Qualitative versus quantitative inquiryOver the years there has been a large amount of complex discussion and argument surrounding the topic of research methodology and the theory of how inquiry should proceed.

Much of this debate has centered on the issue of qualitative versus quantitative inquiry -which might be the best and which is more "scientific". Different methodologies become popular at different social, political, historical and cultural times in our development, and, in my opinion, all methodologies have their specific strengths and weaknesses.

These should be acknowledged and addressed by the researcher. Certainly, if you were to do so, it would help you to think about your research methodology in considerable depth. Deciding which methodology is right for youDon"t fall into the trap which many beginning and experienced researchers do in thinking that quantitative research is "better " than qualitative research. Neither is better than the other -they are just different and both have their strengths and weaknesses. What you will find, however, is that your instincts probably lean you towards one rather than the other.

Listen to these instincts as you will find it more productive to conduct the type of research with which you will feel comfortable, especially if you"re to keep your motivation levels high. Also, be aware of the fact that your tutor or boss might prefer one type of research over the other. If this is the case, you might have a harder time justifying your chosen methodology, if it goes against their preferences.

The major points of contrast and debate between the broad categories of qualitative and quantitative research A. DataWhere a quantitative researcher might seek to know what percentage of people do one thing or another the qualitative researcher pays much greater attention to individual cases and the human understandings that feature in those cases. Nevertheless, one finds the latter using terms such as 'frequently' and 'the majority of people' and so on.

Research SettingMany qualitative researchers have long criticized laboratory-based research as 'artificial' and noted that people react differently in other contexts. There are also criticisms about those researched being influenced by the researchers so that conclusions are not sound, especially when compared to research in 'natural' settings. One response to these arguments are criticisms about the artificiality of structured interviews which qualitative researchers carry out.

Of course, interviews need not be structured though the central issue is about the extent to which the research act interferes with what is researched. In other words are the conclusions valid, do they reflect what they believe they are reflect or are people responding, above all, to the researchers?

Meanings versus BehaviorIn order to find out what a given phenomenon, like special educational needs, means to people it is necessary to ask them and to observe what they do. That is why both interview and observation are key techniques in qualitative research.

Rather than starting with a definition of special needs, the definition 'grows' from the data that is gathered from interview and observation. Thus theory tends to be built from the ground of experience rather than through academic reasoning distant from the scene of everyday experience.

Qualitative Research and Natural ScienceWhat has been most disconcerting is the rigidity of thought that we have experienced when discussing qualitative research. We have found that natural scientists place great store on what they call objective knowledge. This is knowledge which fits into a scheme that they are familiar with and about which they claim to be certain. Unfortunately, many natural scientists are not aware that even within their disciplines there are fads and fashions and different ways of conceptualizing the data they gather.

Different academics carry out pioneering work and come up with different terms for describing their findings and the new terms then take over from the old ones.

At the same time some of the concepts widely used begin to change. In short, the frameworks used by all the forms of knowledge we have change and what was once considered objective becomes less certain and more problematical.

A great deal of science is involved with solving the puzzles that are predominant rather than actually critically de-conceptualizing the basic assumptions. The view described in the paragraph above might be called the objectivist view and we see it sewn into the heart of the national curriculum which has a clear unquestionable framework which encompasses all of the knowledge that children need.

A different set of views are held by someone we might call a subjectivist. Decisions made by a thorough going subjectivist rest upon whim, personal taste or bias. Both objectivism and subjectivism can be contrasted to relativism which is the basic idea that when we consider fundamental notions such as rationality, truth, reality, good and so on, each is as acceptable as any other.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Qualitative research deals in more abstract descriptions while quantitative research deals in numbers and actual hard data. Variables Study of the whole, not variables. The difference between qualitative and quantitative research is fairly simple, yet their consequences are diverse and often complicated. In a nutshell, quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers. Quantitative research is designed to collect cold, hard facts. Qualitative research collects information that seeks to describe a topic more than measure it.

Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative research, characteristics of a large population of interest based on a smaller sample from that.

Quantitative Research: Definition, Methods, Types and Examples

In the field of public relations and communications, it is critical to use both quantitative and qualitative thinking. However, the two are often confused. Mixing up either one badly diminishes the credibility of the PR practitioner and diminishes the trust given to us by our stakeholders, executives and clients. Qualitative analysis fundamentally means to measure something by its quality rather than quantity.

Understanding Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

Researchers often have issues choosing which research method to go with: quantitative or qualitative research methods? Many incorrectly think the two terms can be used interchangeably. Qualitative research is regarded as exploratory and is used to uncover trends in thoughts and opinions, while quantitative research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. Quantitative research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys, online polls, questionnaires, etc. After careful understanding of these numbers to predict the future of a product or service and make changes accordingly.

Learning Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Which you choose will depend on your research questions, your underlying philosophy of research, and your preferences and skills. Our pages Introduction to Research Methods and Designing Research set out some of the issues about the underlying philosophy. This page provides an introduction to the broad principles of qualitative and quantitative research methods, and the advantages and disadvantages of each in particular situations. Qualitative research seeks to answer questions about why and how people behave in the way that they do. It provides in-depth information about human behaviour.

Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative research, including: @ What are some examples of quantitative research that might be.

Examples of quantitative analysis

By Saul McLeod , updated Jump to Quantitative Research Data. Qualitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting non-numerical data, such as language. Qualitative research can be used to understand how an individual subjectively perceives and gives meaning to their social reality. Qualitative data is defined as non-numerical data, such as text, video, photographs or audio recordings. This type of data can be collected using diary accounts or in-depth interviews, and analyzed using grounded theory or thematic analysis.

Роскошной рыжеволосой девицей. Мой Бог. Это была настоящая красотка. - Спутница? - бессмысленно повторил Беккер.  - Проститутка, что. Клушар поморщился: - Вот. Если вам угодно использовать это вульгарное слово.

 Ну. Беккер кивнул. Уже в дверях он грустно улыбнулся: - Вы все же поосторожнее. ГЛАВА 67 - Сьюзан? - Тяжело дыша, Хейл приблизил к ней свое лицо. Он сидел у нее на животе, раскинув ноги в стороны. Его копчик больно вдавливался в низ ее живота через тонкую ткань юбки. Кровь из ноздрей капала прямо на нее, и она вся была перепачкана.

 Ну конечно, - сказала она, все еще не в силах поверить в произошедшее.  - Он хотел, чтобы вы восстановили его доброе имя. - Нет, - хмуро сказал Стратмор.

Он отпил глоток кофе.  - А теперь прошу меня извинить. Мне нужно поработать.

Что помогло бы мне найти девушку, которая взяла кольцо.

Соши побежала к своему терминалу. Джабба нередко прибегал к ВР, что в компьютерных кругах означало виртуальная реальность, но в АНБ это сокращение имело несколько иной смысл - визуальная репрезентация. В мире технических служащих и политиков, имеющих чрезвычайно разные уровни понимания, визуальная репрезентация нередко была единственным способом что-либо доказать: взмывающая вверх кривая производит куда более сильное впечатление, чем целые тома рассуждений. Джабба понимал, что ВР текущего кризиса со всей наглядностью объяснит то, что он хотел сказать. - ВР! - крикнула Соши, усаживаясь за компьютер в задней части комнаты.

Он надеялся, что не совершает ошибку. - Сьюзан, - начал он, - этого не должно было случиться.  - Он провел рукой по своим коротко стриженным волосам.  - Я кое о чем тебе не рассказал. Иной раз человек в моем положении… - Он замялся, словно принимая трудное решение.

Стратмор задумался и тяжело вздохнул. - Пожалуйста, сядь, Сьюзан.


Tricia M.
04.05.2021 at 01:23 - Reply

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