Hazard Identification And Risk Assessment Pdf


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In light of Covid, please note the following changes to the Safety Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment policy effective immediately and until further notice:. This policy provides a process for the identification and assessment of safety hazards in the workplace and a process to effectively manage or control safety hazards to acceptable levels. This policy applies to all employees and contractors of Mohawk College.

Hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Current practice by Part airports is to have a multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders when evaluating complex safety issues affecting airside stakeholders.

The panel is led by a facilitator during a brainstorming session when a cluster of techniques is used, including the preparation of material to support the assessment, the use of the 5M Model to describe the system, a structured or unstructured brainstorming to identify hazards, a risk matrix to assess risks, and additional brainstorming with the panel to evaluate feasible actions to mitigate risks further.

Part airport staffs are gradually becoming familiar with these techniques, but a few gaps were identified during the survey and interviews for this project. This chapter addresses some of the gaps related to techniques frequently used by airports to identify hazards and assess risks.

The goal of the hazard identification step in the SRA process is to identify as many hazards as pos- sible that are applicable to the operation, within the scope of the risk assessment. Most of the SRAs with panels have used facilitated brainstorming techniques to identify hazards. This is the second step of the SRM process recommended by the FAA; however, the airport industry has used other techniques described in this section.

Such functionally unimaginable hazards could not have been obtained by logical thinking in terms of functions and failures, but their identification depends in an essential way on the creativity of operational experts.

Therefore it is necessary that hazard identification be peri- odically reviewed, particularly during the implementation of a project or change. In addition, the aviation system involves many complex interactions between the technical and human components operated by the airlines, the airport, air traffic control, and ground support organizations. Each of these stakeholders must manage the risks that are under its control; however cooperation between those parties will help the coordination and management of interactions and interfaces.

When performing a brainstorming session, the participation of representatives of functions affected by the safety issue is important.

Adapted from the work by de Jong , Figure 16a illustrates a brainstorming session with representatives of only one airport function e. The white circle represents the entire system defined in the SRA; the small hashed circles represent hazards identified; and the dashed circle represents the function assessed for hazards.

It is likely that the hazards identified are only those related to the specific airport function conducting the SRA and that many hazards will be missed. In this situation, new hazards are identified, not only those associated with the second function but additional hazards derived from the interactions between the two functions in the brainstorming process. When more functions are included in the hazard identification, the scenario is changed and it will cover a much larger spectrum of hazards.

One effective way to improve current SRA techniques used by Part airports is to structure the hazard identification by outlining the different parts or sub-tasks of the change being examined.

Breakdown may be by function, chronological order, operational phases, or other factors. This breakdown will help with the systematic identification of risks. An example of structuring a risk assessment is presented here. The airport was having problems with the aircraft towing service provided by airport staff. A number of incidents resulting in minor damage to aircraft had occurred, and the airport wanted to take measures to reduce risk. By dividing the process into tasks, it became easier to identify hazards in each task and the pos- sibility of missing important hazards was reduced.

Another important conclusion is that the system must be well defined, otherwise the panel will not be able to see and discuss hazards outside the limits of the defined system, as shown in Figure 16d. It is important to note that these techniques are applied in all SRM processes used by airports; however, some of those techniques are not used commonly by SRM panels.

Reports, SPIs, and audits are considered data-driven methodologies, and information normally is recorded through systematic processes that allow tracking and further analysis. The other methodologies, classified as qualitative, can be generated in a formal process such as an SRA, or an informal process based on discussions and interviews; these methodologies are considered heuristic processes based on judgment by expe- rienced people or experts.

Hazard identification should be as comprehensive as possible and take into consideration design, organizational, work environment factors, procedures, and operating practices ICAO SMM, 3rd ed. The main challenge of both approaches is to identify hazards that exist but are difficult to recognize. Other hazard identification techniques have been developed to help overcoming this type of deficiency; however, the use of those methods may require specific expertise not commonly available at airports.

In the individual approach, one or two assessors trained in SRM take the responsibility of identi- fying routine hazards that normally represent the majority of hazards at an airport. In most cases, the SMS coordinator and assistants are responsible for this role. In addition, this method is helpful for a preliminary and high-level identification of hazards. At smaller airports, the groups will be small but each department should be represented.

A participant may represent two or more airport functions. According to Bircham , one of the most productive means of encouraging cooperation between management and the rest of the airport workforce is to share the information resulting from the assess- ment with all who might be exposed to the risk. This provides management an opportunity to explain the precautionary risk control measures being considered, and to involve airport staff in their development. Wherever possible, a team exercise involving different levels of personnel and stakeholders will help strengthen the feeling of ownership and help develop a positive safety culture in the airport organization.

Unless the airport manager responsible for dealing with eventual outcomes has a good understanding of the processes involved, the manager will have to implement recommendations under blind conditions. When an individual is responsible for the risk assessment, the work is done faster. However, that individual needs to have substantial experience.

Personal perception may be biased. Brainstorming is the typical SRA technique used to identify hazards by Part airports. However, surveyed Part airports indicate that panels average 15 participants, with a maximum of Again, it is important to recognize that survey responses did not differentiate between the number of participants in FAA and airport-led SRM panels.

Moreover, the use of SRM panels represents a new experience to Part staff, and it has raised interest in experiencing the process. During the early stages of SRM implementation, groups tend to be larger; this is also beneficial for gaining experience and on-the-job training.

Some Part airports have divided larger groups into smaller group sessions with represen- tatives of each group in a final, consolidating session. Many foreign airports have a few staff members with expertise in risk assessment who can develop a preliminary SRA that is circulated among panel participants for comments and suggestions.

The consolidated results are then presented in a regular meeting for additional and final feedback. Lastly, the final document is circulated for approval. Checklists Lists of common hazards have been developed from past projects and people experienced with the type of project or change. The Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry says there are advantages and disadvantages of checklists. Formulation of airfield improvements and construction projects are the most common airport activities requiring an SRA when it has any impact on the airside.

A typical checklist for airfield construction projects is presented in Appendix E. SPIs are used to track and identify undesirable trends in safety performance. The airport selects appropriate parameters, in most cases derived from safety objectives defined by the airport management or related to known safety issues.

Data on SPIs are monitored and trends are evaluated to identify the need for risk control actions. Accident and Incident Investigation Reports Accident and incident investigation reports contain information on hazards, incidents, and accidents and are effective sources for identification of hazards.

For undesirable events, sometimes it is neces- sary to conduct a root cause analysis RCA , which is the analysis of deficiencies to determine their underlying cause FAA AC A The technique also involves a multidisciplinary panel of experts chaired by a facilitator; however, different from brainstorming, it is typically conducted at a higher level of the system, with fewer components.

Sometimes a facilitator will use SWIFT techniques during a brainstorming, even when it is not the predominant method used during the session. Safety Audits Safety audits are routinely used under an SMS for safety assurance, to assess compliance with regulatory and internal requirements, and to evaluate the effectiveness of a system, process, or procedure. Each hazard and associated risk is individually evaluated using this process. Several hazards and risks can be evaluated, and the worksheet is used to sum- marize the process for all hazards.

The method is useful for proactively assessing risks related to formulation, design, and construction of CIPs. Atypi- cal bow-tie diagram is illustrated in Figure In addition, two categories of risk controls are illustrated.

On the left side of the undesirable event are the proactive or preventive controls called barriers e. On the right side are the mitigation controls e. The bow-tie method has many advantages over the more simple method of applying the risk matrix used by Part airports; however it is certainly more complex and may take more time to complete. A typical bow-tie diagram appears in Figure Risk controls, hazards and consequences can be classified according to a variety of categories that can be represented in the bow-tie diagram.

Some classifications used for risk controls are illustrated in Figure 19 and summarized in Table Figure 20 is an example of a bow-tie diagram using those capabilities.

As mentioned earlier, the bow-tie diagram may require more time for development, and it is not a replacement for the approach currently in use by Part airports for CIPs. However, when dealing with specific safety issues such as runway incursions or bird strikes, the bow-tie model can be an excellent alternative.

It is becoming more common with foreign airports that have matured SMS programs. The original, comprehensive diagram is available on the UK website. The original diagram addresses many types of hazards and risk controls, including those under the responsibility of flight safety and air traffic.

The intent in presenting this diagram is to show how comprehensive and how much information is available in this type of model. This report enhances ACRP Report A Guidebook for Safety Risk Management for Airports with additional tools and templates, and presents the conclusions from the survey and interviews as well as the main findings from the literature review.

Several tools and templates, including a Quick Reference Guide and a template for the SRA briefing, are provided in the appendices of this report.

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Risk Assessment

During work experience, you must remain alert to anything that may be dangerous. If you see, hear or smell anything odd, take note. If you think it could be a hazard, tell someone. Key point: Assessing the risk means working out how likely it is that a hazard will harm someone and how serious the harm could be. Always tell someone your employer, your supervisor or your health and safety representative about hazards you can't fix yourself, especially if the hazard could cause serious harm to anyone.

Easy-to-read, question-and-answer fact sheets covering a wide range of workplace health and safety topics, from hazards to diseases to ergonomics to workplace promotion. Download the free OSH Answers app. Search all fact sheets:. A risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc. After identification is made, you analyze and evaluate how likely and severe the risk is.

How to Conduct a Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Current practice by Part airports is to have a multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders when evaluating complex safety issues affecting airside stakeholders.

With the growing numbers of iron ore pelletization industries in India, various impacts on environment and health in relation to the workplace will rise. Therefore, understanding the hazardous process is crucial in the development of effective control measures. The aim of the study was to identify all the possible hazards at different workplaces of an iron ore pelletizing industry, to conduct an occupational health risk assessment, to calculate the risk rating based on the risk matrix, and to compare the risk rating before and after the control measures.

Gulf Centre for Aviation Studies

Course prices are defined for 1 participant per course. If you have promotion code you can apply it to get a discount. Health and safety issues are becoming increasingly important in the modern industrial world. Risk assessment is a core element of health and safety management.

Labs can be dangerous places. Even the most careful workers can have accidents. Before you even begin, put together a risk assessment team to conduct surveys and gather relevant information. They represent the people in the lab and make informed decisions about the overall safety of the lab. This makes it easier to ensure their safety once a problem has been identified.

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A risk management approach involves identification and assessment of risks followed by elimination of risks in the first instance or where this is not practicable​.

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