List Of Herbs And Spices And Their Health Benefits Pdf


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Herb Benefits List Pdf Health

Metrics details. Culinary herbs and spices have been used as both food flavoring and food preservative agents for centuries. Moreover, due to their known and presumptive health benefits, herbs and spices have also been used in medical practices since ancient times. Some of the health effects attributed to herbs and spices include antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as potential protection against cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.

While interest in herbs and spices as medicinal agents remains high and their use in foods continues to grow, there have been remarkably few studies that have attempted to track the dietary intake of herbs and spices and even fewer that have tried to find potential biomarkers of food intake BFIs.

The aim of the present review is to systematically survey the global literature on herbs and spices in an effort to identify and evaluate specific intake biomarkers for a representative set of common herbs and spices in humans.

A total of 25 herbs and spices were initially chosen, including anise, basil, black pepper, caraway, chili pepper, cinnamon, clove, cumin, curcumin, dill, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, lemongrass, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, peppermint and spearmint, rosemary, saffron, sage, tarragon, and thyme. However, only 17 of these herbs and spices had published, peer-reviewed studies describing potential biomarkers of intake.

In many studies, the herb or spice of interest was administrated in the form of a capsule or extract and very few studies were performed with actual foods. A systematic assessment of the candidate biomarkers was also performed.

Given the limitations in the experimental designs for many of the published studies, further work is needed to better evaluate the identified set of BFIs. Although the daily intake of herbs and spices is very low compared to most other foods, this important set of food seasoning agents should not be underestimated, especially given their potential benefits to human health. Spices are the dried, pleasantly aromatic parts of the plants. The main difference between a herb and a spice is that a spice comes from any part of a plant other than the leaves while a herb always comes from the leaves [ 1 ].

Most of the known herbs and spices originate from Mediterranean countries, the Middle East or Asia, and many have been used since ancient Egyptian and Roman times [ 3 ].

Herbs and spices have played, and continue to play, important roles as flavoring agents, food preservatives and medicines for centuries. Over the last few decades, research into their health benefits has increased significantly, as many herbs and spices are known to possess properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases. In particular, some of the potential health benefits of herbs and spices include conferring protection against cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative conditions, chronic inflammation, cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ].

A number of herbs and spices have also been noted for their strong antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory properties [ 4 , 7 , 15 ]. Moreover, the flavoring properties of many herbs and spices tend to reduce the use of salt as a flavoring agent i.

Most of the positive health effects of herbs and spices towards preventing or ameliorating chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and neurodegeneration appear to be mediated through the direct action of their constituent phytochemicals particularly polyphenols or polyphenol breakdown products targeting specific receptors or enzymes involved in various anti-inflammatory pathways or immune responses [ 10 ].

Herbs and spices especially in their dried form contain high levels of polyphenols [ 6 ] and other physiologically active phytochemicals. The predominant class of polyphenols found in herbs and spices are the phenolic acids and flavonoids mainly flavones and flavonols [ 17 ].

Relative to other polyphenol-rich foods such as broccoli, dark chocolate, red, blue and purple berries, grapes or onions—herbs and spices generally contain somewhat higher levels of these compounds. For instance, oregano has Similarly, high polyphenolic levels are seen in rosemary [ Likewise, cloves have 16, In contrast, other non-herbs and foods such as dark chocolate contain Polyphenols, terpenoids, and other spice-derived alkaloids such as capsaicinoids are also known to possess antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties [ 18 ].

This is one reason why herbs and spices are so frequently used as preservative agents in food [ 19 ]. The antimicrobial properties of herbs and spices have been attributed to their unique volatile oils and oleoresins [ 20 ]. For instance, comparative studies involving cloves, cinnamon, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme showed that thyme oil was particularly active against Aeromonas hydrophila— a pathogen widely distributed in the environment, domestic animals, and food [ 21 ].

Likewise, essential oils found in thyme, oregano, mint, cinnamon, and cloves were found to possess strong antibacterial properties against several food-borne bacteria and fungi [ 22 ]. The number of herbs with known or potential anti-inflammatory activity is quite significant. The spices that are most frequently identified as having anti-inflammatory effects are thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, basil, mint, turmeric, dill, parsley, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, lemon grass, ginger, chili pepper, fenugreek, and pepper [ 4 , 23 ].

Many of the anti-inflammatory compounds found in herbs and spices, such as curcumin, gingerol, and capsaicin, appear to operate by inhibiting one or more of the steps linking pro-inflammatory stimuli with cyclooxygenase COX activation [ 10 ].

Given the widespread use of herbs and spices and given their known and potential health benefits, there is clearly a need to better understand the consumption patterns of herbs and spices. Population-wide average dietary intake of common spices varies considerably around the world.

For instance, Europeans consume an estimated at 0. Moderate consumers of herbs and spices are found in the Middle East and Eastern Asia with daily consumption of 2. The highest consumers of herbs and spices are found in India, South Africa, and Latin America with an average of 4. In India, turmeric consumption, alone, has been estimated to be 1. While consumption of herbs and spices is generally higher in Southern countries such as India, Mexico, Peru, China, and Thailand, herb and spice intake has been increasing in many developed countries in Northern Europe and North America, due to changing food habits and a growing preference for ethnic or spicy food [ 26 , 27 ].

In this regard, the development and identification of biomarkers of food intake BFI for specific herb and spice consumption would help advance the field. In particular, herb-specific or spice-specific BFIs would permit better exposure estimates for much more comprehensive and far more detailed epidemiological studies of the influence of herbs and spices on human health.

This review is focused on finding and evaluating specific nutritional biomarkers for a representative set of 25 common herbs and spices used worldwide [ 3 , 10 ]. This set of 25 was selected based on reported estimates of consumption volume in North America and Europe as well as the frequency with which these spices and herbs were cited in the literature. The 25 herbs and spices that were examined include anise, basil, black pepper, caraway, Capsicum sp. The specific search terms for specific herbs and spices included both their common and scientific names so as to be as comprehensive as possible.

This literature search was conducted between November and January of , followed by a second validation phase and update in January The literature search was limited to papers in the English language with no restrictions being applied for the publication dates. Papers were excluded if they investigated the effect on human physiology of the selected herbs and spices, the presence or effect of toxicants, if they referred to unspecific markers or if they were based on in vitro or animal studies.

A second search step was used to evaluate the apparent specificity of the markers in the list. The remaining list of potential biomarkers was used for a second literature search in the three bibliographic databases used also for the primary search. This was done in order to identify other foods containing the potential biomarkers or their precursors, as well as foods otherwise associated with these compounds.

At the end of this selection process, the usefulness, and weakness of each biomarker compounds were evaluated, and the most promising biomarkers were scored to assess their validity as BFIs according to the system reported below. In order to further assess the validity of the biomarker candidates, a set of consensus evaluation criteria, from the FoodBAll consortium was employed [ 33 ].

Specifically, the suitability of each biomarker was assessed by answering a set of questions reported elsewhere [ 33 ], which reflect the analytical and biological criteria that the proposed biomarkers should fulfill in order to be considered valid. Possible answers were Y yes , N no , or U unknown or uncertain. The potential markers were scored for plausibility and uniqueness question 1 ; kinetics and dose-response relationship question 2 , kinetics of postprandial response question 3a and longer-term kinetics question 3b.

All markers were further evaluated for their robustness in complex diets or a real exposure situation question 4 and reliability question 5 , which refers to the concordance with other measures of intake for the food or food group in question such as other existing validated biomarkers or dietary instruments. The analytical aspects of each BFI were investigated through an evaluation of their chemical stability question 6 , their analytical performance question 7 , and reproducibility in different labs question 8.

The research papers that identified, described, or evaluated potential biomarkers of intake for the set of 25 herbs and spices were further screened by one or more skilled researchers as described in Fig. The initial PubMed search retrieved matches, the Web of Science search generated matches, and the Scopus search generated matches, resulting in a total of hits. This number was reduced to after the removal of duplicates. Subsequent screening of the titles and abstracts by the skilled researchers reduced the number of papers to Further evaluation excluded 6 papers and a secondary search identified 1 more paper leading to a total of 49 papers that were included in this review Fig.

Additional papers were identified from the reference lists in these papers and from reviews or book chapters identified through the literature search. This secondary search was used to evaluate the apparent specificity of the marker. No potential BFI papers were found for black pepper, caraway, clove, cumin, dill, fenugreek, lemongrass, and spearmint. It should be noted that the search criteria were primarily targeted for BFIs in humans, but, in some cases, a small number of papers in which the BFI study was performed in animals were also investigated.

These papers were used to provide supportive information to the studies performed in humans; however, the biomarkers observed only in animal studies were not considered eligible for further BFI validation. Anise is a seed spice derived from a flowering plant belonging to the family Apiaceae , which is native to the Eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.

The distinctive licorice flavor and aroma from anise comes from anethole. Anethole is a phenylpropene derivative found in anise Pimpinella anisum and fennel Foeniculum vulgare. Anethole exists in both a cis and a trans isomer with the trans isomer being more abundant. In Mediterranean countries, the popularity of alcoholic and non-alcoholic anise-flavored beverages has led to a much greater consumption of trans- anethole [ 36 ].

Anethole is also used in medicines as an expectorant, an antitussive and an antispasmodic for treating gastrointestinal tract illnesses. As a result, anise is found in a number of pharmaceutical products.

Just two papers have reported potential anise intake biomarkers. The most complete study was conducted in [ 37 ], where Caldwell and co-workers performed an acute human study administrating trans -anethole using a synthesized radio-labeled 14 C compound. The only other research article to look into anise BFIs was an observational study that measured the content of anethole in the blood after the intake of alcoholic anise-based beverages [ 37 ].

This study rigorously monitored a single individual, wherein the subject consumed the alcoholic drink ouzo over three different days under controlled conditions.

The anethole concentrations detected for the tested volunteer showed rapid resorption of anethole as well as rapid elimination. Anethole concentrations above the detection level of 3. For the 50 motor vehicle drivers, 10 out of 50 serum samples had anethole concentrations of between 5.

Based on these two studies, we can conclude that anethole seems to be a robust and reliable blood BFI for anise consumption as assessed by observational studies involving the consumption of anise-based drinks.

In this regard, two compounds, 4-methoxyhippuric acid and 4-methoxybenzoic acid have been specifically detected in urine after direct anethole intake. We also believe that further studies are needed to confirm that these two compounds are seen with actual anise-based food intake. It is also worth noting that anethole is found in fennel, basil, and tarragon [ 38 ], and it is widely present in pharmaceutical products and as a flavoring additive.

Therefore, anethole and its metabolites may not be sufficiently specific BFIs for anise intake. The chili pepper is a fruit spice derived from plants from the genus Capsicum , originated in Mexico and brought to Asia by Portuguese navigators during the sixteenth century.

The five domesticated species of pepper are Capsicum annuum , C. Chili peppers have a taste that is pungent, hot, and somewhat sweet depending on the variety and type. Mild or sweet peppers contain similar constituents as Capsicum but with little or no pungent components. Chili peppers are used as food colorants, flavoring agents, as predator repellants, and a source of pain relief. Capsaicin occurs naturally in plants of the Solanaceae family.

It is commonly used in both food and medicine, but its strong pungency limits the quantity that can be employed. Capsicum contains up to 1.

Herbs and Spices- Biomarkers of Intake Based on Human Intervention Studies – A Systematic Review

Please Note: This article is to be considered as general information. Please consult with your relevant health care professional in relation to the use of these herbs. Herbs and spices is at the foreground of our history. These have been integrated into our rich culture and tradition for many centuries. Ancient Egypt had used herbs and spices to preserve their mummies. Also, it was recorded that Chinese and Korean junk boats traded herbs and spices in B. This trading had expanded throughout Europe, Asia and eventually, in the Americas.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future - Public Health Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences Papers,


Many offer health benefits through abundant phytonutrients How fast do freshly picked vegetables and herbs lose their Top 6 Culinary/Medicinal Herbs & Spices Types: 1. Sweet Basil (US & Europe). Full flavor and sweet. 2. Thai Basil.


Health Benefits Of 38 Important Spices From Around The World

Metrics details. Culinary herbs and spices have been used as both food flavoring and food preservative agents for centuries. Moreover, due to their known and presumptive health benefits, herbs and spices have also been used in medical practices since ancient times. Some of the health effects attributed to herbs and spices include antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as potential protection against cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.

Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future - Public Health

Abundant anecdotal information documents the historical use of herbs and spices for their health benefits 1. Beginning 6 million years ago, early man co-evolved with the flowering plants in the world around him 2. Early documentation suggests that hunters and gatherers wrapped meat in the leaves of bushes, accidentally discovering that this process enhanced the taste of the meat, as did certain nuts, seeds, berries, and bark. Over the years, spices and herbs were used for medicinal purposes. They were also used as a way to mask unpleasant tastes and odors of food, and later, to keep food fresh 3.

Health Benefits of Herbs and Spices. Busque trabalhos relacionados com Health benefits of herbs and spices chart ou contrate no maior mercado de freelancers do mundo com mais de 18 de trabalhos. Culinary herbs and spices were historically used for both culinary and health benefits.


Perhaps the greatest health benefit of using herbs and spices Tables 1 and 2 list a few common herbs and spices. There are many more you can try, pdf. Dermody, Cynthia. “The Shelf Life of Spices.” Accessed January 30,


health benefits of herbs and spices chart pdf

Brandi Marcene is a regular contributor to Natural Food Series. Fresh sweet marjoram is a source to obtain vitamin C. You can even reap adequate levels of phytonutrients from this herb. You should incorporate chamomile tea into your diet to ward off factors that contribute to stomach disorders. The Information I provide in this book is intended to provide invaluable knowledge on healthy lifestyle choices and should not be used in lieu of the advice of a qualified alternative professional or allopathic physician. It is true that you cannot ingest comfrey. That is why herbalists consider it a relaxing agent.

This includes definitions of the food category and the way in which benefits might Health Details: List of herbs and benefits. This is a list of some of the herbs contained in Dr. Sebi's compounds. Check Price.

list of herbs and their health benefits pdf

 Три! - крикнула Сьюзан, перекрывая оглушающую какофонию сирен и чьих-то голосов. Она показала на экран. Все глаза были устремлены на нее, на руку Танкадо, протянутую к людям, на три пальца, отчаянно двигающихся под севильским солнцем.

 Самопроизвольный взрыв? - ужаснулась Соши.  - Господи Иисусе. - Ищите.  - Над ними склонился Фонтейн.  - Посмотрим, что у них .

Конечно же, все дело в вирусе. Чатрукьян это чувствовал. У него не было сомнений относительно того, что произошло: Стратмор совершил ошибку, обойдя фильтры, и теперь пытался скрыть этот факт глупой версией о диагностике.

Она понимала, что говорила с ним слишком сурово, и молила Бога, чтобы в Испании у него все прошло хорошо. Мысли Сьюзан прервал громкий звук открываемой стеклянной двери. Она оглянулась и застонала. У входа стоял криптограф Грег Хейл. Это был высокий мужчина крепкого сложения с густыми светлыми волосами и глубокой ямкой на подбородке.

4 Comments

Summer B.
01.05.2021 at 19:21 - Reply

Research on the effects of herbs and spices on mental health should distinguish between There is level II evidence for the use of ginger in ameliorating arthritic knee pain; Garlic was used by herbalists during the plague.

AntГ­gono S.
02.05.2021 at 16:58 - Reply

Table 1. Dietary guidelines and recommendations. Although there is increasing interest and research in the health-promoting and protective.

Seymour A.
04.05.2021 at 18:07 - Reply

Health benefits: Anti-inflammatory and digestive benefits, gas reducing effects. Aleppo Pepper. Tastes like: ancho-like flavor, cross between cumin and cayenne​.

Blanchefle J.
07.05.2021 at 18:44 - Reply

Anise : Star anise is usually used for culinary purposes in Chinese, Indian, Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines.

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