Pigging Oil And Gas PdfBy Steven A. In and pdf 28.04.2021 at 22:46 9 min read
File Name: pigging oil and gas .zip
The pipeline inspection gauge PIG, lowercase pig is commonly used with a bypass valve is widely used in pipeline inspection because it operates at a low speed without reducing the flow rate. Understanding the dynamics of a bypass pig in a gas pipeline would contribute to the design of the pig and the control of pig speed. This paper deals with the dynamic model for the process of a bypass pig travelling through a hilly gas pipeline.
Smart pigging solutions — minimize risks, reduce costs and ensure the long term integrity of your pipeline. Pipelines are a safe, efficient method for conveying high value commodities, such as oil and gas. However, they are vulnerable to factors such as corrosion and deposits, which can reduce flow rates and cause expensive failures.
Smart Pigging Solutions
In pipeline transportation , pigging is the practice of using pipeline inspection gauges, devices generally referred to as pigs or scrapers , to perform various maintenance operations. This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline.
These operations include but are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline. Pigging has been used for many years to clean large diameter pipelines in the oil industry. Today, however, the use of smaller diameter pigging systems is now increasing in many continuous and batch process plants as plant operators search for increased efficiencies and reduced costs. Pigging can be used for almost any section of the transfer process between, for example, blending, storage or filling systems.
Pigging systems are already installed in industries handling products as diverse as lubricating oils, paints, chemicals, toiletries, cosmetics and foodstuffs. Pigs are used in lube oil or paint blending to clean the pipes to avoid cross-contamination, and to empty the pipes into the product tanks or sometimes to send a component back to its tank.
Usually pigging is done at the beginning and at the end of each batch, but sometimes it is done in the midst of a batch, such as when producing a premix that will be used as an intermediate component. Pigs are also used in oil and gas pipelines to clean the pipes.
There are also "smart pigs" used to inspect pipelines for the purpose of preventing leaks, which can be explosive and dangerous to the environment. They usually do not interrupt production, though some product can be lost when the pig is extracted. They can also be used to separate different products in a multiproduct pipeline.
If the pipeline contains butterfly valves , or reduced port ball valves, the pipeline cannot be pigged. Full port or full bore ball valves cause no problems because the inside diameter of the ball opening is the same as that of the pipe. Some early cleaning "pigs" were made from straw bales wrapped in barbed wire  while others used leather.
A major advantage for multi-product pipelines of piggable systems is the potential of product savings. At the end of each product transfer, it is possible to clear out the entire line contents with the pig, either forwards to the receipt point, or backwards to the source tank. There is no requirement for extensive line flushing.
Without the need for line flushing, pigging offers the additional advantage of much more rapid and reliable product changeover. Product sampling at the receipt point is faster with pigs, because the interface between products is very clear; the old method of checking at intervals to determine where the product is on-specification takes considerably longer. Pigging can also be operated totally by a programmable logic controller PLC.
Pigging has a significant role to play in reducing the environmental impact of batch operations. Traditionally, the only way that an operator of a batch process could ensure a product was completely cleared from a line was to flush the line with a cleaning agent such as water or a solvent, or even with the next product. The cleaning agent then had to be subjected to effluent treatment or solvent recovery.
If a product was used to clear the line, it was necessary to downgrade or dump the contaminated portion of the product. Pigging systems are designed so that the pig is loaded into the launcher, which is pressured to launch the pig into the pipeline through a kicker line.
In some cases, the pig is removed from the pipeline via the receiver at the end of each run. Many systems are designed to pig the pipeline in either direction. The pig is pushed either with a gas or a liquid; if pushed by gas, some systems  can be adapted in the gas inlet in order to ensure pig's constant speed, whatever the flow pressure is.
The pigs must be removed, as many pigs are rented, pigs wear and must be replaced, and cleaning and other pigs push contaminants from the pipeline such as wax, foreign objects, hydrates, etc. There are inherent risks in opening the barrel to atmospheric pressure so care must be taken to ensure that the barrel is depressurized prior to opening.
If the barrel is not completely depressurized, the pig can be ejected from the barrel and operators have been severely injured when standing in front of an open pig door. A pig was once accidentally shot out of the end of a pipeline without a proper pig receiver and went through the side of a house feet away.
Operators should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus when working on sour systems. A few pigging systems utilize a "captive pig", and the pipeline is only opened occasionally to check the condition of the pig. These systems are not common. There are many reports of incidents in which operators have been injured or even killed while performing a pigging operation. Common causes of such events are:.
All these causes are directly related to improper operation of the process valves and the closure door. A common method of avoiding these kinds of incidents is to add valve interlocks,  which has been adopted by all global oil and gas operating companies. Safety during pigging relies on strict adherence to safety procedures, which give detailed description of a safe valve operating sequence. By physically blocking incorrect operations, valve interlocks enforce such sequences.
Valve interlocks are permanently mounted to both manual and motor operated valves and the closure door. The interlocks block operation of a valve or door, unless the appropriate keys are inserted. The principle of valve interlocking is the transfer of keys. Each lock is equipped with two keys: a key for the locked open position and one for the locked closed position.
During an operating procedure, only one key at a time is free. This key only fits in the interlock belonging to the valve that is to be operated next in the operating procedure.
All keys are uniquely coded to avoid the possibility that valves can be unlocked at an inappropriate time. Nowadays intelligent interlocking solutions enable the integration of field devices like pressure or H 2 S meters in a valve interlocking sequence. A "pig" in the pipeline industry is a tool that is sent down a pipeline and propelled by the pressure of the product flow in the pipeline itself.
There are four main uses for pigs:. One of the most common and versatile is the foam pig which is cut or poured out of open cell polyurethane foam into the shape of a bullet and is driven through pipelines for many reasons such as to prove the inner diameter of, clean, de-water, or dry out the line. There are several types of pigs for cleaning in various densities from 2 lb to 10 lb foam and in special applications up to 20 lb. Some have tungsten studs or abrasive wire mesh on the outside to cut rust , scale , or paraffin wax deposits off the inside of the pipe.
Other types are fully or criss-cross coated in urethane, or there are bare polyurethane foam pigs with a urethane coating just on the rear to seal and assist in driving the pig. There are also fully molded urethane pigs used for liquid removal or batching several different products in one line. Inline inspection pigs use various methods for inspecting a pipeline.
A sizing pig uses one or more notched round metal plates as gauges. The notches allow different parts of the plate to bend when a bore restriction is encountered. More complex systems exist for inspecting various aspects of the pipeline. Intelligent pigs are used to inspect the pipeline with sensors and record the data for later analysis.
These pigs use technologies such as magnetic flux leakage MFL and ultrasound to inspect the pipeline. Intelligent pigs may also use calipers to measure the inside geometry of the pipeline. In , the first intelligent pig was run by Shell Development. It demonstrated that a self-contained electronic instrument could traverse a pipeline while measuring and recording wall thickness. The instrument used electromagnetic fields to sense wall integrity.
In Tuboscope ran the first commercial instrument. It used MFL technology to inspect the bottom portion of the pipeline. The system used a black box similar to those used on aircraft to record the information; it was basically a highly customized analog tape recorder.
Until recently, tape recording although digital was still the preferred recording medium. As the capacity and reliability of solid-state memory improved, most recording media moved away from tape to solid-state. Capacitive sensor probes are used to detect defects in polyethylene pipe gas pipeline. These probes are attached to the pig before it is sent through the polyethylene pipe to detect any defects in the outside of the pipe wall. This is done by using a triple plate capacitive sensor in which electrostatic waves are propagated outward through the pipe's wall.
Any change in dielectric material results in a change in capacitance. Modern intelligent or "smart" pigs are highly sophisticated instruments that include electronics and sensors that collect various forms of data during their trip through the pipeline. They vary in technology and complexity depending on the intended use and the manufacturer.
The electronics are sealed to prevent leakage of the pipeline product into the electronics since products can range from being highly basic to highly acidic and can be of extremely high pressure and temperature. Many pigs use specific materials according to the product in the pipeline. Power for the electronics is typically provided by onboard batteries which are also sealed. Data recording may be by various means ranging from analog tape, digital tape, or solid-state memory in more modern units.
The technology used varies by the service required and the design of the pig; each pigging service provider may have unique and proprietary technologies to accomplish the service. Other "smart" pigs use electromagnetic acoustic transducers to detect pipe defects.
Some smart pigs use a combination of technologies, such as providing MFL and caliper functions in a single tool. Trials of pigs using acoustic resonance technology have been reported. For example, steel pipelines effectively prevent any significant radio communications outside the pipe. It is therefore necessary that the pig use internal means to record its own movement during the trip. This may be done by odometers , gyroscope-assisted tilt sensors and other technologies.
Location verification is often accomplished by surface instruments that record the pig's passage by either audible, magnetic, radio-transmission or other means. The sensors record when they detect the passage of the pig time-of-arrival ; this is then compared to the internal record for verification or adjustment. The external sensors may have Global Positioning System capability  to assist in their location. A few pig passage indicators transmit the pig's passage, time and location, via satellite uplink.
After the pigging run has been completed, the positional data from the external sensors is combined with the pipeline evaluation data corrosion, cracks, etc. In other words, the combined data reveals to the operator the location, type and size of each pipe defect. This information is used to judge the severity of the defect and help repair crews locate and repair the defect quickly without having to dig up excessive amounts of pipeline.
By evaluating the rate of change of a particular defect over several years, proactive plans can be made to repair the pipeline before any leakage or environmental damage occurs. The inspection results are typically archived perhaps in Pipeline Open Data Standard format for comparison with the results of later pigging runs on the same pipeline.
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Multisize pipelines are widely used in offshore oil and gas production system; however, the inspection and cleaning process for these pipelines usually are more complex. The pigs used in Santos basin, such as porcupine pigs for inspection and varipigs for cleanning, require some restricions, like maximum pig speed to guarantee a good cleaning effectiveness and, mainly, to guarantee the pig structural integrity. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the simulation effectiveness to estimate pig total travel time and pig speed profile, therefore assuring the pig integrity during the pigging process in a gas network with many platforms interconnected. The analysys will compare total travel time and structural integrity of pigs after they arrive in final destination, given the lack of a velocity profile information in these procedures. Sign In or Register.
Smart Pigging Solutions
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 29—October 3, Wax deposition in oil pipelines causes reduced throughput and other associated problems.
Received: 4 December Accepted: 16 March Pipe cleaning is a common operation in the oil and gas industry. In this paper, the governing equation of the pipeline inspection gauge PIG, lowercase pig is commonly used speed is combined with the gas flow equations.
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- Он направился к полке с ячейками для ключей и почты.
Смотрите! - сдавленным голосом сказала Мидж, махнув рукой в сторону окна. Фонтейн посмотрел на вспышки огней в куполе шифровалки. Глаза его расширились. Это явно не было составной частью плана. - У них там прямо-таки дискотека! - пролопотал Бринкерхофф.
Он разглядывал роскошную внутреннюю отделку, выстроившиеся в ряд компьютеры, диваны, книжные полки, залитые мягким светом. Увидав королеву шифровалки Сьюзан Флетчер, Чатрукьян моментально отвел. Он боялся ее как огня. Ее мозги работали словно на совсем другом уровне.
A form of flow assurance for oil and gas pipelines and flowlines, pipeline pigging ensures the line is running smoothly. In the context of.
Challenges of pipeline maintenance
А теперь - за работу. ГЛАВА 12 Дэвиду Беккеру приходилось бывать на похоронах и видеть мертвых, но на этот раз его глазам открылось нечто особенно действующее на нервы. Это не был тщательно загримированный покойник в обитом шелком гробу. Обнаженное тело, бесцеремонно брошенное на алюминиевый стол. Глаза, которые еще не приобрели отсутствующего безжизненного взгляда, закатились вверх и уставились в потолок с застывшим в них выражением ужаса и печали. - Dоnde estan sus efectos? - спросил Беккер на беглом кастильском наречии.
Зачем вам деньги? - спросил. Я не собираюсь оплачивать твое пристрастие к наркотикам, если речь идет об. - Я хочу вернуться домой, - сказала блондинка. - Не поможете. - Опоздала на самолет. Она кивнула.
Повернувшись, он увидел вошедшую в туалет девушку. Молоденькая, изысканной внешности, ну прямо сошла со страниц журнала Севентин. Довольно консервативные брюки в клетку, белая блузка без рукавов. В руке красная туристская сумка фирмы Л. Белл.
Один голос был резкий, сердитый. Похоже, он принадлежал Филу Чатрукьяну.
Если бы Хейлу был известен план Стратмора выпустить модифицированную версию Цифровой крепости, он дождался бы, когда ею начнет пользоваться весь мир, и только тогда взорвал бы свою бомбу, пока все доказательства были бы в его руках. Сьюзан представила себе газетный заголовок: КРИПТОГРАФ ГРЕГ ХЕЙЛ РАСКРЫВАЕТ СЕКРЕТНЫЙ ПЛАН ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА ВЗЯТЬ ПОД КОНТРОЛЬ ГЛОБАЛЬНУЮ ИНФОРМАЦИЮ. Что же, это очередной Попрыгунчик. Вторично разоблачив попытку АНБ пристроить к алгоритму черный ход, Грег Хейл превратится в мировую знаменитость. И одновременно пустит АНБ ко дну.
Джабба тяжко вздохнул и повернулся к экрану. - Не знаю. Все зависит от того, что ударило в голову автору. - Он привлек внимание к тексту на экране. - Кто-нибудь может мне объяснить, что это .
Окинув быстрым взглядом находящееся за стеклом помещение шифровалки, Сьюзан включила кнопку яркости. Вспыхнувший экран был совершенно пуст. Несколько этим озадаченная, она вызвала команду поиска и напечатала: НАЙТИ: СЛЕДОПЫТ Это был дальний прицел, но если в компьютере Хейла найдутся следы ее программы, то они будут обнаружены.