Religion In Southeast Asia An Encyclopedia Of Faiths And Cultures PdfBy Emily B. In and pdf 29.04.2021 at 03:12 7 min read
File Name: religion in southeast asia an encyclopedia of faiths and cultures .zip
- Southeast Asia
- Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia
- Buddhism: Buddhism in Southeast Asia
Hinduism and Buddhism exerted an enormous influence on the civilizations of Southeast Asia and contributed greatly to the development of a written tradition in that area.
Southeast Asia , vast region of Asia situated east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China. It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection commonly called mainland Southeast Asia and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east of the mainland insular Southeast Asia. Extending some miles 1, km southward from the mainland into insular Southeast Asia is the Malay Peninsula ; this peninsula structurally is part of the mainland, but it also shares many ecological and cultural affinities with the surrounding islands and thus functions as a bridge between the two regions.
Mainland Southeast Asia is divided into the countries of Cambodia , Laos , Myanmar Burma , Thailand , Vietnam , and the small city-state of Singapore at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula; Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, which occupy the eastern portion of the mainland, often are collectively called the Indochinese Peninsula.
Malaysia is both mainland and insular, with a western portion on the Malay Peninsula and an eastern part on the island of Borneo. Except for the small sultanate of Brunei also on Borneo , the remainder of insular Southeast Asia consists of the archipelagic nations of Indonesia and the Philippines.
Southeast Asia stretches some 4, miles at its greatest extent roughly from northwest to southeast and encompasses some 5,, square miles 13,, square km of land and sea, of which about 1,, square miles is land. Mount Hkakabo in northern Myanmar on the border with China, at 19, feet 5, metres , is the highest peak of mainland Southeast Asia.
Although the modern nations of the region are sometimes thought of as being small, they are—with the exceptions of Singapore and Brunei—comparatively large.
Indonesia, for example, is more than 3, miles from west to east exceeding the west-east extent of the continental United States and more than 1, miles from north to south; the area of Laos is only slightly smaller than that of the United Kingdom; and Myanmar is considerably larger than France.
All of Southeast Asia falls within the tropical and subtropical climatic zones, and much of it receives considerable annual precipitation. It is subject to an extensive and regular monsoonal weather system i. It also has been of great importance that Southeast Asia, which is the most easily accessible tropical region in the world, lies strategically astride the sea passage between East Asia and the Middle Eastern—Mediterranean world.
Within this broad outline, Southeast Asia is perhaps the most diverse region on Earth. The number of large and small ecological niches is more than matched by a staggering variety of economic, social, and cultural niches Southeast Asians have developed for themselves; hundreds of ethnic groups and languages have been identified.
Yet from ancient times Southeast Asia has been considered by its neighbours to be a region in its own right and not merely an extension of their own lands. Modern scholarship increasingly has yielded evidence of broad commonalities uniting the peoples of the region across time. Studies in historical linguistics , for example, have suggested that the vast majority of Southeast Asian languages—even many of those previously considered to have separate origins—either sprang from common roots or have been long and inseparably intertwined.
Despite inevitable variation among societies, common views of gender, family structure, and social hierarchy and mobility may be discerned throughout mainland and insular Southeast Asia, and a broadly common commercial and cultural inheritance has continued to affect the entire region for several millennia.
These and other commonalities have yet to produce a conscious or precise Southeast Asian identity, but they have given substance to the idea of Southeast Asia as a definable world region and have provided a framework for the comparative study of its components.
The land has been subjected to a considerable amount of faulting , folding, uplifting, and volcanic activity over geologic time , and much of the region is mountainous. There are marked structural differences between the mainland and insular portions of the region. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia
The story of South Asian religious life begins with the river Indus and its tributaries. The Indus was the center of the earliest complex urban culture of which we have evidence in the region, the Indus Valley or Harappan culture ca. Some scholars postulate continuities between elements of the culture, such as possible goddess or fertility worship, and later religious developments in South Asia, such as the growth of the cult of the goddess in Hinduism. The great Hindu god Shiva, who gained prominence later, may also relate to a figure present on Indus Valley seals. Similarities between the Indus Valley and later cultures are difficult to verify, because the script found in the Indus Valley is undeciphered and available evidence is entirely material. By B. Vedic culture is so named for the literature of the period, the Veda.
But modern scholarship has demonstrated that prior to the development of the classical Southeast Asian states, which occurred from the tenth or eleventh century to the fifteenth century ce, Buddhism in Southeast Asia — the area covered by present-day Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia Kampuchea , and Laos — defies rigid classification. Both archaeological and chronicle evidence suggest that the religious situation in the area was fluid and informal, with Buddhism characterized more by miraculous relics and charismatic, magical monks than by organized sectarian traditions. Hence, by the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the primary, although by no means exclusive, form of Buddhism in Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia was a Sinhala orthodoxy that was dominated doctrinally by "the commentator" Buddhaghosa but enriched by various local traditions of thought and practice. By this time, what is now Malaysia and Indonesia, with the exception of Bali, had been overrun by Islam, and the popular religion there was an amalgamation of animism, Brahmanic deities, and the religion of the Prophet. The future of Buddhism in Southeast Asia may not hang in the balance; nevertheless, it does appear to be problematic. Political events in Cambodia Kampuchea and Laos have threatened the very foundations of institutional Buddhism in those countries. Our attention to Southeast Asian Buddhism should not ignore its fragility or its potential contribution to the continuing self-definition and self-determination of these civilizations.
Southeast Asia , vast region of Asia situated east of the Indian subcontinent and south of China. It consists of two dissimilar portions: a continental projection commonly called mainland Southeast Asia and a string of archipelagoes to the south and east of the mainland insular Southeast Asia. Extending some miles 1, km southward from the mainland into insular Southeast Asia is the Malay Peninsula ; this peninsula structurally is part of the mainland, but it also shares many ecological and cultural affinities with the surrounding islands and thus functions as a bridge between the two regions. Mainland Southeast Asia is divided into the countries of Cambodia , Laos , Myanmar Burma , Thailand , Vietnam , and the small city-state of Singapore at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula; Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, which occupy the eastern portion of the mainland, often are collectively called the Indochinese Peninsula. Malaysia is both mainland and insular, with a western portion on the Malay Peninsula and an eastern part on the island of Borneo.
Buddhism: Buddhism in Southeast Asia
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Please check back later for the full article. The diverse religions of the peoples of Southeast Asia include indigenous traditions of supernaturally oriented beliefs and practices plus four of the largest world religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity.
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Hinduism or Sanatana Dharma is considered to be the oldest religion in the world Fowler , p1. This religion originated in India.
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