Building Materials Construction And Planning PdfBy Albana E. In and pdf 16.04.2021 at 10:14 10 min read
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- What is included in our building material list?
- Construction process pdf
- The next normal in construction material distribution
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What is included in our building material list?
Please enter your email address. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. Become VIP Member. Do you need to remove the ads? Building materials or construction materials are the major requirement in this modern age of technology. There are many types of building materials used for different construction works. For a material to be considered as building material, it should have required engineering properties suitable for construction works.
These properties of building materials are responsible for its quality and capacity and helps to decide applications of these material. These are the properties required to estimate the quality and condition of the material without any external force. The physical properties of engineering materials are as follows. Bulk density is the ratio of mass to the volume of the material in its natural state that is including voids and pores. Bulk density influences the mechanical properties of materials like strength, heat and conductivity etc.
It is the ratio of volume of pores to the volume of material. Porosity influences many properties like thermal conductivity, strength, bulk density, durability etc. The property of a material to withstand against the combined action of atmospheric and other factors is known as durability of material. If the material is more durable, it will be useful for longer life. Maintenance cost of material is dependent of durability. Density is the ratio of mass of the material to its volume in homogeneous state.
Almost all the physical properties of materials are influenced by its density values. Density values of some building materials are given below. Ratio of bulk density of material to its density is termed as density index. Hence it gives the volume of solid matter in the material. In nature, fully dense material is not available so, density index is always less than 1 for any building material.
Specific gravity is the ratio of mass of given substance to the mass of water at 4 o C for the equal volumes. Specific gravity of some materials is listed below. The ability to withstand against fire without changing its shape and other properties. Fire resistance of a material is tested by the combined actions of water and fire.
Fireproof materials should provide more safety in case of fire. The ability of a material to resist freezing or thawing is called frost resistance. It is depends upon the density and bulk density of material. Denser materials will have more frost resistance. Moist material have low frost resistance and they lose their strength in freezing and become brittle. The property of a material to withstand against all atmospheric actions without losing its strength and shape.
Weathering effects the durability of material. For example corrosion occurs in iron due to weathering. To resist this paint layer is provided. The ability of a material to undergo certain number of cycles of sharp temperature variations without failing is known as spalling resistance. It is the dependent of coefficient of linear expansion. The capacity of a material to absorb and retain water in it is known as water absorption. It depends up on the size, shape and number of pores of material.
The ability of a material to permit water through it is called water permeability. Dense materials like glass metals etc. Hygroscopicity is the property of a material to absorb water vapor from the air. It depends on the relative humidity, porosity, air temperature etc. Coefficient of softening of a material is the ration of compressive strength of a saturated material to its compressive strength in dry state. It affects the strength of water absorbent materials like soil.
The property of a material which cannot melts or lose its shape at prolonged high temperatures o C or more. Mechanical properties of the materials are find out by applying external forces on them.
These are very important properties which are responsible for behavior of a material in its job. The mechanical properties are,. The capacity of a material to resist failure caused by loads acting on it is called as strength.
The load may be compressive, tensile or bending. It is determined by dividing the ultimate load taken by the material with its cross sectional area.
Strength is an important property for any construction materials. So, to provide maximum safety in strength, factor of safety is provided for materials and it is selected depending on nature of work, quality of material, economic conditions etc.
The property of a materials to resist scratching by a herder body. MOHS scale is used to determine the hardness of a materials. Hardness is most important to decide the usage of particular aggregate. It also influences the workability. The capacity of a material to regain its initial shape and size after removal of load is known as elasticity and the material is called as elastic material.
Which gives modulus of elasticity as the ratio of unit stress to unit deformation. Higher the value of modulus of elasticity lower the deformations. When the load is applied on the material, if it will undergo permanent deformation without cracking and retain this shape after the removal of load then it is said to be plastic material and this property is called as plasticity. They give resistance against bending, impact etc. When the material is subjected to load, if it fails suddenly without causing any deformation then it is called brittle material and this property is called as brittleness.
If a material is subjected to repeated loads, then the failure occurs at some point which is lower than the failure point caused by steady loads. This behavior is known as fatigue. If a material is subjected to sudden loads and it will undergo some deformation without causing rupture is known as its impact strength. It designates the toughness of material.
The loss of material due to rubbing of particles while working is called abrasion. The abrasion resistance for a material makes it durable and provided long life. Creep the deformation caused by constant loads for long periods. It is time dependent and occurs at very slow rate. It is almost negligible in normal conditions. But at high temperature conditions creep occur rapidly. The properties of materials against the chemical actions or chemical combinations are termed as chemical properties. And they are.
The ability of a construction materials to resist the effects by chemicals like acids, salts and alkalis is known as chemical resistance. Underground installations, constructions near sea etc. Formation of rust iron oxide in metals, when they are subjected to atmosphere is called as corrosion. So, the metals should be corrosive resistant. To increase the corrosion resistance proper measures should be considered.
Otherwise it will damage the whole structure. The properties of a material to conduct or to resist electricity through them are electrical properties of material. For example, wood have great electric resistance and stainless steel is a good conductor of electricity. The magnetic properties of materials like permeability, hysteresis etc.
Thermal capacity is the property of a material to absorb heat and it is required to design proper ventilation. It influences the thermal stability of walls.
The amount of heat transferred through unit area of specimen with unit thickness in unit time is termed as thermal conductivity. It is measured in kelvins.
It depends on material structure, porosity, density and moisture content. High porous materials, moist materials have more thermal conductivity. It is the ability to resist heat conduction. And it is the reciprocal of thermal conductivity.
Construction process pdf
PLAN BEAM Tags BMCP Notes BMCP notes pdf bmcp pdf building construction lecture notes pdf building materials and construction notes pdf building materials and construction pdf free download, Your email address will not be published. It is 6 times than that of blasting powder, 0. Building Planning and Drawing is also useful to most of the students who are preparing for Competitive Exams. This Subject is mainly useful for B.
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The next normal in construction material distribution
The history of construction embraces many other fields like structural engineering , Civil engineering , cities growing and Population growth that are relatives to branches of Technology science, history , and architecture to investigate the buildings conservation and recorded their accomplishments. Those fields permit use to analyze modern or Latest construction and prehistoric constructions , as their structures , building Materials , and tools used. The Neolithic , also known as the "New Stone Age", was a time period roughly from BC to BC named because it was the last period of the age before wood working began. The tools available were made from natural materials including bone , hide, stone , wood, grasses, animal fibers, and the use of water. These tools were used by people to cut such as with the hand axe , chopper , adze , and celt.
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Но было что-то. Сьюзан на мгновение заколебалась и оглянулась на заблокированную дверь. Всего двадцать минут, подумала. Повернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан вдруг уловила странный мускусный запах - очень необычный для Третьего узла.
- Но он знал, что сказанного не вернешь. ГЛАВА 62 Коммандер и Сьюзан стояли у закрытого люка и обсуждали, что делать. - Итак, внизу у нас погибший Чатрукьян, - констатировал Стратмор. - Если мы вызовем помощь, шифровалка превратится в цирк.
Так появился апельсиновый мармелад. Халохот пробирался между деревьями с пистолетом в руке. Деревья были очень старыми, с высокими голыми стволами. Даже до нижних веток было не достать, а за неширокими стволами невозможно спрятаться. Халохот быстро убедился, что сад пуст, и поднял глаза вверх, на Гиральду.