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- The role of Immunoglobulin E and immune inflammation: Implications in allergic rhinitis
- IgE in Clinical Allergy and Allergy Diagnosis
- Immunoglobulin E
- Targeted therapy in severe asthma today: focus on immunoglobulin E
Immunoglobulin E IgE is a type of antibody or immunoglobulin Ig " isotype " that has been found only in mammals.
PLoS Med 15 11 : e This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In a study recently published in PLOS Medicine , Custovic and colleagues [ 1 ] report an elegant analysis of the results of specific Immunoglobulin E IgE assays on sera from a birth cohort that they have studied in detail over the last 15 years.
The role of Immunoglobulin E and immune inflammation: Implications in allergic rhinitis
The shape of the IgE molecule differs dramatically from that of IgG. The presence of an unusually long extracellular membrane-proximal domain in membrane IgE may also determine its ability to act as an antigen receptor on B cells and to respond to particular antigens allergens. The trimeric structure of the C-type lectin, low-affinity IgE receptor CD23, and its susceptibility to cleavage by ADAM10 a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 at the cell surface, provide important clues to the mechanism of IgE homeostasis.
CD23 has multiple ligands, including IgE, CD21 and various integrins, enabling it to carry out several other functions, including IgE-dependent antigen presentation and cellular cytotoxicity.
IgE is transported to mucosal tissues by CD23 and is also synthesized by the resident B cells. Class switching to IgE and affinity maturation of the antibodies occur in mucosal tissues, and this may limit the ability of IgE antibodies to mediate systemic anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms contrive to suppress the production of IgE synthesis to tolerable levels, as well as limiting its anatomical distribution. Some mechanisms operate at the level of class-switch recombination, others at the level of survival of the IgE-switched cells.
IgE transport in both directions through the gastrointestinal epithelium may be involved in early sensitization to allergens. Studies of the mechanism of early sensitization may suggest means of preventing the development of allergic disease. The spreading epidemic of allergies and asthma has heightened interest in IgE, the central player in the allergic response.
Here, we review recent progress in uncovering the structures of these proteins and their complexes, and in our understanding of how IgE exerts its effects and how its expression is regulated. The information that has emerged suggests new therapeutic directions for combating allergic disease. Stanworth, D. The discovery of IgE. Allergy 48 , 67—71 Thornton, C. Fetal exposure to intact immunoglobulin E occurs via the gastrointestinal tract. Allergy 33 , — Finkelman, F. Advances in asthma, allergy mechanisms, and genetics in Allergy Clin.
Gould, H. The biology of IgE and the basis of allergic disease. Holgate, S. The anti-inflammatory effects of omalizumab confirm the central role of IgE in allergic inflammation.
Zheng, Y. Biochemistry 30 , — This paper provides the first demonstration of the bent structure of IgE both in solution and bound to the cell. Dynamic conformations compared for IgE and IgG1 in solution and bound to receptors. Biochemistry 31 , — Wan, T. The crystal structure of IgE Fc reveals an asymmetrically bent conformation. Nature Immunol. Beavil, A. Bent domain structure of recombinant human IgE-Fc in solution by X-ray and neutron scattering in conjunction with an automated curve fitting procedure.
Biochemistry 34 , — Wurzburg, B. Immunity 13 , — Bestagno, M. Membrane immunoglobulins are stabilised by interchain disulphide bonds occurring within the extracellular membrane-proximal domain. Biochemistry 40 , — Batista, F. The two membrane isoforms of human IgE assemble into functionally distinct B cell antigen receptors.
This study demonstrates that the two isoforms of membrane IgE 'long' and 'short' , as part of the BCR, transmit different signals. Vangelista, L. Kinet, J. Kraft, S. Nature Rev. Garman, S. Crystal structure of the human high-affinity IgE receptor. Cell 95 , — Nature , — Henry, A.
Biochemistry 36 , — McDonnell, J. Nature Struct. Holowka, D. Insights into immunoglobulin E receptor signalling from structurally defined ligands. Niemi, M. Structure 15 , — Weskamp, G. Lemieux, G. McCloskey, N. Kijimoto-Ochiai, S. Hibbert, R. Yokota, A. Two forms of the low-affinity Fc receptor for IgE differentially mediate endocytosis and phagocytosis: identification of the critical cytoplasmic domains.
Natl Acad. USA 89 , — Montagnac G. Intracellular trafficking of CD differential regulation in humans and mice by both extracellular and intracellular exons.
Vercelli, D. The B-cell binding site on human immunoglobulin E. Aubry, J. CD23 interacts with a new functional extracytoplasmic domain involving N-linked oligosaccharides on CD Structural changes in the lectin domain of CD23, the low-affinity IgE receptor, upon calcium binding. Structure 14 , — Bettler, B. Mossalayi, M. Cytokine effects of CD23 are mediated by an epitope distinct from the IgE binding site.
EMBO J. Szakonyi, G. Structure of complement receptor 2 in complex with its C3d ligand. Science , — Gilbert, H. The 15 SCR flexible extracellular domains of human complement receptor type 2 can mediate multiple ligand and antigen interactions. Sayers, I. Liu, F. Regulatory roles of galectins in the immune response.
Allergy Immunol. Ahmad, N. Galectin-3 precipitates as a pentamer with synthetic multivalent carbohydrates and forms heterogeneous cross-linked complexes.
IgE in Clinical Allergy and Allergy Diagnosis
Allergies and asthma: A Mayo Clinic specialist explains the connection, and what you can do to prevent attacks and manage symptoms. You may wonder what allergies and asthma have in common besides making you miserable. A lot, as it turns out. Allergies and asthma often occur together. The same substances that trigger your hay fever symptoms, such as pollen, dust mites and pet dander, may also cause asthma signs and symptoms. In some people, skin or food allergies can cause asthma symptoms. This is called allergic asthma or allergy-induced asthma.
Immunoglobulin E IgE can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation SHM , clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences.
Abstract | The spreading epidemic of allergies and asthma has heightened interest in IgE, the central player in the Functions of IgE. We now consider the essential features of IgE function All links ARE ACTivE in ThE onlinE PDF. REVIEWS.
In a physician observed, following a blood transfusion, a case of transient asthma caused by allergy to horse dander. This was the first indication of a factor in blood capable of mediating an allergic reaction. The search for reagin started after that, but until the 's it was thought that reaginic activity was not a single, indivisible molecular species but was present in allergic sera in the form of labile complexes. This differed radically from immune antibodies that were known at the time.
Targeted therapy in severe asthma today: focus on immunoglobulin E
Asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases encountered in clinical practice. Although the vast majority of asthmatics can be adequately controlled with inhaled steroids and other preventer medications, a small proportion remain uncontrolled. Anti-IgE treatment with omalizumab has been proposed in patients as a preferred approach in step 5 asthma therapy according to GINA guidelines. Although therapy with this molecule is approved for patients with atopic asthma and pretreatment serum IgE levels of only, there have been a few reports of its efficacy in subjects outside this reference IgE range. We report the case of a middle-aged lady with severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma and low serum IgE levels who was successfully treated with 9 months of omalizumab therapy. She gained good asthma control and was tapered off steroid use by the fifth month of therapy with omalizumab. The case report stresses the need for further investigation into expanding the spectrum of omalizumab usage in asthma beyond the current IgE suitability range.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Gould and B.
Immunoglobulin E IgE plays a critical role in the allergic inflammatory process in diseases such as allergic rhinitis. Cross-linking IgE bound to its receptor on cells by multivalent allergens initiates a chain of events resulting in allergic immune responses. Mast cells and basophils are involved in the early, immediate response, which is marked by cellular degranulation and the release of proinflammatory mediators, including histamine. Antigen-presenting cells are also activated by allergen-loaded IgE, resulting in immunomodulation of T-cell responses.
Беккер понимал, что через несколько секунд его преследователь побежит назад и с верхних ступеней сразу же увидит вцепившиеся в карниз пальцы.
Цепная мутация, сэр. Я проделал анализ и получил именно такой результат - цепную мутацию. Теперь Сьюзан поняла, почему сотрудник систем безопасности так взволнован.
Клубы пара вырвались наружу, подкрашенные снизу в красный цвет контрольными лампами. Далекий гул генераторов теперь превратился в громкое урчание. Чатрукьян выпрямился и посмотрел .
Еще несколько секунд - и все решит один-единственный выстрел. Даже если Беккер успеет спуститься вниз, ему все равно некуда бежать: Халохот выстрелит ему в спину, когда он будет пересекать Апельсиновый сад.