Chemical And Physical Properties Of Oxygen Pdf


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Oxygen is one of the most abundant elements on this planet. Oxygen exhibits many unique physical and chemical properties. For example, oxygen is a colorless and odorless gas, with a density greater than that of air, and a very low solubility in water. In fact, the latter two properties greatly facilitate the collection of oxygen in this lab. Among the unique chemical properties of oxygen are its ability to support respiration in plants and animals, and its ability to support combustion.

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Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 VIA of the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to each other. The elements in Group 16 are said to belong to the chalcogen family.

Other elements in this group include sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. The name chalcogen comes from the Greek word chalkos, meaning "ore. Oxygen is by far the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Nearly half of all the atoms in the earth are oxygen atoms.

Oxygen also makes up about one-fifth of the Earth's atmosphere. Nearly 90 percent of the weight of the oceans is due to oxygen. In addition, oxygen is thought to be the third most abundant element in the universe and in the solar system. The discovery of oxygen is usually credited to Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele and English chemist Joseph Priestley The two discovered oxygen at nearly the same time in , working independently of each other.

Oxygen is necessary for the survival of all animal life on Earth. Animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. One important use of oxygen is in medicine. People who have trouble breathing are given extra doses of oxygen. In many cases, this "extra oxygen" keeps people alive after they would otherwise have died.

But oxygen has many commercial uses also. The most important use is in the manufacture of metals. More than half of the oxygen produced in the United States is used for this purpose. Oxygen usually ranks third in the list of chemicals produced in the United States each year.

In , about billion cubic feet of oxygen was manufactured in the United States. The gas is prepared almost entirely from liquid air. What is air? Ancient peoples thought deeply about that question. And that should not be surprising. It is easy to see how essential air is to many processes.

Objects cannot burn without air. Human life cannot survive without air. In fact, ancient peoples thought air must be an "element. To ancient people, an element was something that was very important and basic. Air fit that description, along with fire, water, and earth. They often thought of air as an element in the modern sense—that it was as simple a material as could be found. Yet, some early scholars believed otherwise. For example, some Chinese scholars, as early as the eighth century A.

They called these parts the yin and yang of air. The properties of the Chinese yin and yang can be compared to the properties of oxygen and nitrogen. The first person in Western Europe to describe the "parts" of air was Italian artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo pointed out that air is not entirely used up when something is burned in it. He said that air must consist, therefore, of two parts: one part that is consumed in burning and one part that is not.

For many years, Leonardo's ideas were not very popular among scholars. One problem was that early chemists did not have very good equipment.

It was difficult for them to collect samples of air and then to study it. Joseph Priestley. In the early s, chemists began to find out more about air, but in a somewhat roundabout way. For example, in and , Scheele studied the effect of heat on a number of different compounds. When he heated these compounds, he found that a gas was produced. He then studied the properties of that gas. He found that flames burned brightly in the gas. He also found that animals could live when placed in the gas.

Without knowing it, Scheele had discovered oxygen. See sidebar on Scheele in the chlorine entry in Volume 1. About two years later, Priestley conducted similar experiments by heating mercury oxide HgO in a flame. The compound broke down, producing liquid mercury metal and a gas:. When Priestley tested the new gas, he found the same properties that Scheele had described.

Priestley even tried breathing the new gas he had produced. His description of that experience has now become famous:. A ntoine-Laurent Lavoisier is often called the father of modern chemistry. He has been given that title for a number of reasons.

The most important reason is the explanation he discovered for the process of combustion burning. Prior to Lavoisier's research, chemists thought that a burning object gave off a substance to the air. They called that substance phlogiston. When wood burned, for example, chemists said that phlogiston escaped from the wood to the air. Lavoisier showed that this idea was incorrect. When something burns, it actually combines with oxygen in the air.

Combustion, Lavoisier said, is really just oxidation the process by which something combines with oxygen. This discovery gave chemists a whole new way to look at chemical changes.

The phlogiston theory gradually began to die out. Many of the ideas used in modern chemistry began to develop. No wonder Lavoisier is called the father of this revolution.

Lavoisier led an unusually interesting life. He was an avid chemist who carried out many experiments. But he also had a regular job as a tax collector. His job was to visit homes and businesses and collect taxes. This did not make him a very popular man! Lavoisier also made some important enemies early in his life.

One of these enemies was Jean-Paul Marat Marat thought of himself as a scientist and applied for membership in the French Academy of Scientists. Lavoisier voted against Marat's application.

He said that Marat's research was not very good. Less than a decade later, Lavoisier had reason to regret that decision. Marat had become a leader in the French Revolution He accused Lavoisier of plotting against the revolution. He also said that Lavoisier was carrying out dangerous secret experiments.

These accusations were not true. But Marat was now a very powerful man. He was able to have Lavoisier convicted of the charges against him. On May 8, , Lavoisier was beheaded and buried in an unmarked grave. Some people have said that Lavoisier's death was the worst single consequence of the French Revolution.

The feeling of it [the new gas, oxygen] to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air, but I fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards. Who can tell but that, in time, this pure air may become a fashionable article in luxury? Hitherto only two mice and myself have had the privilege of breathing it.

Some people think Scheele should get credit for discovering oxygen. He completed his experiments earlier than did Priestley. But his publisher was very slow in printing Scheele's reports. They actually came out after Priestley's reports. So most historians agree that Scheele and Priestly should share credit for discovering oxygen. Neither Scheele nor Priestley fully understood the importance of their discovery.

That step was taken by French chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier

Oxygen - O

What are the Properties of Oxygen? Definition of Oxygen What is the definition of Oxygen? It is a colorless, tasteless, odourless gaseous element that constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere and is found in water, in most rocks and minerals, and in numerous organic compounds. It is capable of combining with all elements except the inert gases and is involved especially in combustion processes. The Physical and Chemical Properties are the characteristics of a substance, like Oxygen, which distinguishes it from any other substance. Most common substances, like Oxygen, exist as States of Matter as solids, liquids, gases and plasma. Refer to the article on Oxygen Element for additional information and facts about this substance.

Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Each allotrope has different physical properties. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.

Oxygen is an important part of the atmosphere and is necessary to sustain terrestrial life. Because it comprises most of the mass in water, it also comprises most of the mass of living organisms. All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, contain oxygen, as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells, teeth, and bone. Elemental oxygen O 2 is produced by cyanobacteria, algae, and plants through the process of photosynthesis, and is used in cellular respiration by most living organisms on earth. Oxygen is toxic to obligate anaerobic organisms organisms which need a lack of oxygen for survival , which were the dominant form of early life on Earth, until O 2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere. At standard temperature and pressure STP , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O 2.

4: The Properties of Oxygen Gas (Experiment)

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Gaseous chemical element, symbol: O, atomic number: 8 and atomic weight 15, Nearly one fifth in volume of the air is oxygen. Non-combined gaseous oxygen normally exists in form of diatomic molecules, O 2 , but it also exists in triatomic form, O 3 , named ozone. In normal conditions oxygen is a colourless, odourless and insipid gas; it condensates in a light blue liquid.

Chemistry in its element: oxygen

Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 VIA of the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to each other. The elements in Group 16 are said to belong to the chalcogen family. Other elements in this group include sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium. The name chalcogen comes from the Greek word chalkos, meaning "ore. Oxygen is by far the most abundant element in the Earth's crust.

ГЛАВА 23 Сьюзан, сидя в одиночестве в уютном помещении Третьего узла, пила травяной чай с лимоном и ждала результатов запуска Следопыта. Как старшему криптографу ей полагался терминал с самым лучшим обзором. Он был установлен на задней стороне компьютерного кольца и обращен в сторону шифровалки. Со своего места Сьюзан могла видеть всю комнату, а также сквозь стекло одностороннего обзора ТРАНСТЕКСТ, возвышавшийся в самом центре шифровалки. Сьюзан посмотрела на часы.

Гигантский компьютер содрогался мелкой дрожью, из густого клубящегося тумана падали капли воды. Сигналы тревоги гремели подобно грому. Коммандер посмотрел на вышедший из строя главный генератор, на котором лежал Фил Чатрукьян. Его обгоревшие останки все еще виднелись на ребрах охлаждения. Вся сцена напоминала некий извращенный вариант представления, посвященного празднику Хэллоуин.

3: The Properties of Oxygen Gas (Experiment)

Мы похороним ключ Хейла и станем молиться Богу, чтобы Дэвид нашел копию, которая была у Танкадо. Дэвид, вспомнила Сьюзан. Она заставляла себя не думать о .

Может быть, можно взглянуть? - Он встал и начал обходить круг терминалов, двигаясь по направлению к. Сьюзан понимала, что сегодня любопытство Хейла может привести к большим неприятностям, поэтому быстро приняла решение. - Это диагностика, - сказала она, взяв на вооружение версию коммандера. Хейл остановился: - Диагностика? - В голосе его слышалось недоверие.

 - Сьюзан шумно выдохнула и повернулась к.  - Я думаю, - начала она, -что я только… -но слова застряли у нее в горле. Она побледнела. - Что с тобой? - удивленно спросил Хейл. Сьюзан встретилась с ним взглядом и прикусила губу.

Он постучал. - Hola.

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Oxygen exhibits many unique physical and chemical properties. For example, oxygen is a colorless and odorless gas, with a density greater than that of air, and​.

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