Presidential Politics And Science Policy Katz PdfBy Libby B. In and pdf 20.04.2021 at 07:30 10 min read
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That governments may not always keep their election promises or that they change policy positions may be unsurprising. However, failed promises, backing down on threats or flip-flopping on policy positions may be associated with a loss in support.
- A little justification goes a long way: audience costs and the EU referendum
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- A little justification goes a long way: audience costs and the EU referendum
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A little justification goes a long way: audience costs and the EU referendum
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Communities operate in the context of federal and state policies that can affect local government decisions relevant to health through laws and regulations, through the allocation of resources, and by shaping political will on issues and approaches.
Among the more widely recognized policies are those that fund or regulate health care delivery services. But policies in a variety of areas, ranging from education to land use and housing, the environment, and criminal justice, can be relevant to health disparities. Policies can vary significantly across geographic areas and over time in establishing priorities, providing funding, or encouraging collaboration. They can provide important opportunities or constitute barriers to promoting health equity.
The policy context shapes the levers that are available to communities to address change. It seems reasonable to assume that the better informed communities are about the implications of federal and state policy and policy changes, the greater their ability will be to respond effectively to address health disparities and help achieve change in the determinants of health. And, conversely, the more the needs of communities are considered in decision making at the federal and state levels, the more effective those policies will be.
In other words, policy makers have the opportunity to lay the groundwork for community success. This policy context i. Frequently, community health initiatives, including collaborative activities, sometimes limit their vision and advocacy to policy changes related to health care and perhaps social services Whittington et al. Communities—and the federal and state agencies that support them in their efforts to address health disparities—have multiple examples to follow in expanding their focus beyond health care and social services and examining opportunities in economic development, land use and housing, education, and criminal justice, areas which have not traditionally been the focus of health improvement efforts.
Nevertheless, potential partners in those sectors are already working to improve outcomes, save money, and achieve other objectives that influence health. Examples include community development, justice reinvestment, and clean energy financing Andrews et al.
There are also policy changes that could be made at the federal and state level across non-health domains that would remove barriers. The committee asserts that to attain health equity in the long term, policies that create structural barriers need to be addressed—addressing the root cause of the problem, not only treating the inequities that result. In this chapter, specific policies in six areas are discussed for their high relevance to community-based solutions that advance health equity: taxation and income inequality, housing and urban planning, education, civil rights, health, and criminal justice policy.
As discussed in Chapter 3 , income has been identified as one of many drivers of population health and health inequity over the life course, along with factors that are closely related to income such as education, occupation, and place of residence Adler and Rehkopf, ; Chow et al. Market income e.
The CBO also examined before-tax income, which adds government transfers to market income. Government transfers reduce income inequality.
Because government transfers largely benefit those at lower income levels, taking into account government transfers attenuates the income gap somewhat. So-called before-tax incomes rose between 32 and 39 percent in the lowest four quintiles, compared to 18 percent when government transfers are excluded. Because the highest quintile does not receive a significant amount of government transfers, its before-tax income grew at a similar rate as market income.
Finally, the CBO measured after-tax income, which takes into account both government transfers and taxes. Most federal revenues come from. Over 35 years, households in the top 1 percent of the income distribution experienced an average 3 percent annual growth in inflation-adjusted, after-tax income compared with 1 percent for households in the bottom quintile.
Thus, over 35 years, incomes at the top increased by percent compared with an increase of 46 percent at the bottom.
Half of tax offsets, including exclusions, deductions, preferential rates, and credits, go to those in the highest fifth of incomes CBO, In average federal tax rates were below the year average for most households, despite recent changes in tax law. Thus, across all three measures examined by the CBO, income inequality has grown substantially. These analyses also demonstrate the important role of government transfers and tax policy, as well as general economic conditions, in shaping income inequality.
The steady upward trend of income inequality in the United States has been documented and examined in a range of scholarship, including political science.
A recent study underscores the stark relationship between income inequality and health and how this manifests locally. In the largest study of its kind, Chetty et al. The relationship found by Chetty et al. The relationship holds through the highest income percentiles, although the magnitude of the effect diminishes higher on the income distribution.
Other studies have found that the income gradient also exists across racial and ethnic groups and that the relationship between income and health is stronger than between race and health Woolf et al. Chetty et al.
In certain local areas, the effect of being at the bottom of the income gradient is more pronounced than in others, with four- to fivefold differences. Trends in life expectancy also varied geographically, with some areas experiencing improvements and others declines. There are a number of mechanisms through which income differences might drive local health patterns. Health behaviors, such as obesity and. Low-income families that are food-insecure have also been found to choose high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods, contributing to worse health outcomes Burke et al.
Federal means-tested programs are based on income and, whether through cash or in-kind benefits, can have a significant impact on health outcomes and thereby redress health inequity. The largest of these programs is Medicaid, which is discussed later in the chapter. The second largest program by expenditures is the earned income tax credit EITC , which provides a tax credit to low-income families and individuals, followed by SSI, which provides benefits to low-income individuals with disabilities.
Other programs include subsidized housing of various forms; SNAP, which supports food expenditures for low-income families and individuals; and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, a cash benefit program that has contracted in size and is currently less than one-quarter the size of the EITC in aggregate GAO, Finally, there are school food programs, Early Education, and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, the latter of which provides vouchers for nutritional foods, counseling, health screening, and referrals for low-income infants, young children, and pregnant and postpartum women.
The programs vary significantly in the size of their benefits and in the number of people they reach.
Over time, their growth rates have changed with economic conditions and changes in program rules. Program rules further shape the distribution of benefits among the low-income population: a study by Ben-Shalom et al.
In many states a federal program is augmented through benefits or eligibility expansions. Thus, local community conditions can vary significantly over time and across regions.
The evidence base concerning the health effects of these means-tested programs varies. SNAP plays a crucial role in reducing poverty and. The U. Chan School of Public Health. In the federal EITC benefit, the largest means-tested federal program after Medicaid, provided cash transfers to 26 million people who work, primarily those with children IRS, Studies have found that EITC benefits lead to improvements in a variety of health and mental health conditions for adults and children, as well as to reductions in smoking and other behaviors detrimental to health, improved parenting, and better school outcomes Dahl and Lochner, ; Evans and Garthwaite, ; Hamad and Rehkopf, , ; Strully et al.
Twelve states play an important role in improving income and health equity by augmenting the EITC through state tax law. New York, for example, extends benefits to noncustodial parents, which has been found to increase employment and child support payments Nichols and Rothstein, Because the EITC targets low- and middle-income workers, its expansion reduces income inequality and improves health equity. In addition to the tax code and government transfers, federal and state laws shape incomes through minimum wage provisions.
In 21 states, the minimum wage is set higher than the federal level Tax Policy Center, Given that minimum wages vary significantly due to state and local policies, such policies are another driver of health inequity at the community level.
Declines in real minimum wages have been found to contribute to income inequality, particularly for women, between and Autor et al. Studies of minimum wage and health have found that declining real minimum wage rates have contributed to increasing obesity rates in the United States Meltzer and Chen, and that minimum wage policies are associated with lower maternal smoking and. A potential downside of minimum wage policies is their potential to decrease employment; research indicates that minimum wages can cause at least some unemployment, particularly for very low-skilled workers, including teenagers Neumark et al.
Housing affordability has become a significant policy concern. From to the average rent burden for all renters grew from 26 percent of income to 29 percent of income, but for low-income families the burden has grown considerably more: renters in the bottom fifth of the income distribution spent about 63 percent of their income on rent in , compared with 55 percent in Collinson et al.
In , 49 percent of all renters and 89 percent of low-income renters spent more than 30 percent of their income on rent, an approximate 25 percentage point increase since This increase arose partly from improvements in housing and partly from stagnant incomes. The federal government supports housing affordability through in-kind, means-tested programs and through the tax code.
Two-thirds of federal subsidy recipients are either low-income elderly or people with disabilities. Among the earliest forms of housing assistance, public housing has faced numerous challenges. Historically, public housing developments were placed in disproportionately poor areas, distinct from their surrounding neighborhoods, which led to greater concentrations of poverty and racial segregation Schill and Wachter, Today, funding for public housing is on the decline, and there are fewer than 1.
Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD HOPE VI program promoted demolition of public housing and sought to replace distressed public housing developments with lower-density, mixed-income developments Schwartz, ; however, just over half of the demolished units have been replaced.
A number of other HUD-subsidized programs have supported privately owned, low-income housing by lowering construction costs or by providing rental subsidies to tenants. The Housing Choice Voucher formerly Section 8 program awards vouchers to low-income families so that they can rent apartments on the private market. The program supports 2. The remainder of the 5.
A significant policy issue is the low participation in housing assistance programs; only one in four eligible households currently receives a housing subsidy, and many areas report long waiting lists that combined are estimated to exceed 6. The LIHTC program is administered by state entities that determine funding priorities within a federal framework. A number of housing policies contribute to the economic status and welfare of low-income families.
These include the overall size of federal housing assistance, which currently supports only one-quarter of eligible poor families; housing allocation processes; eligibility rules; and requirements on the quality of housing itself.
At the same time, research findings on the impacts of housing policy on health equity are mixed. A recent review Collinson et al. In particular, the public housing program appears to concentrate families in more economically and racially isolated neighborhoods than they would otherwise live in. In contrast, families receiving tenant-based subsidies like housing vouchers do not typically use them to move to neighborhoods that are substantially different from where they were previously living, although some research indicates that families receiving vouchers who have school-age children will move if housing is available near higher-performing schools Ellen et al.
Other research finds that although public housing is associated with reduced grade retention i. The HUD Moving to Opportunity experiment related to public housing found that children, mostly girls, benefited from moving out of public housing projects into a housing voucher program Kessler et al. Relatively little research. Housing affordability and federal HUD policies are part of a larger dialogue concerning housing that also includes land use, residential and commercial development, natural resource use, transportation, and, even more broadly, changing neighborhoods and concerns over potential residential disruption.
Urban planning policies shape the physical environment along with many other social determinants of health. Within federal and state initiatives, community actions can support local policy and implementation so that they benefit vulnerable populations.
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Two-step flow model of communication , theory of communication that proposes that interpersonal interaction has a far stronger effect on shaping public opinion than mass media outlets. According to the authors, opinion leaders pick up information from the media, and this information then gets passed on to less-active members of the public. This implies that most people receive information from opinion leaders through interpersonal communication rather than directly from mass media. Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet discovered that most voters in the election got their information about the candidates from other people who read about the campaign in the newspapers, not directly from the media. Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet concluded that word-of-mouth transmission of information plays an important role in the communication process and that mass media have only a limited influence on most individuals. The theory of the two-step flow of communication reversed the dominant paradigm in mass communication at the time. However, the research done by Lazarsfeld and others showed that only about 5 percent of people changed their voting preference as a result of media consumption and that interpersonal discussions of political issues were more prevalent than consumption of political news within one typical day.
Philip E. Rubin born May 22, is an American cognitive scientist , technologist , and science administrator known for raising the visibility of behavioral and cognitive science and neuroscience at a national level. His research career is noted for his theoretical contributions and pioneering technological developments, starting in the s, related to speech synthesis and speech production , including articulatory synthesis computational modeling of the physiology and acoustics of speech production and sinewave synthesis , and their use in studying complex temporal events, particularly understanding the biological bases of speech and language. From through Feb. Philip Rubin received his BA in psychology and linguistics in from Brandeis University and subsequently attended the University of Connecticut where he received his PhD in experimental psychology in under the tutelage of Michael Turvey , Ignatius Mattingly , Philip Lieberman , and Alvin Liberman. Philip Rubin's research spans a number of disciplines, combining computational, engineering, linguistic, physiological, and psychological approaches to study embodied cognition , most particularly the biological bases of speech and language.
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A little justification goes a long way: audience costs and the EU referendum
Andrew Johnstone, Andrew Priest, eds. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, Reviewed by Andrew Z. Though campaigns spend enormous sums of money on candidate messaging, with swing state voters deluged with political advertising, perceptions of the condition of the economy are generally seen as key to the outcome of the quadrennial national vote. Consequently, little scholarly attention is paid to how foreign policy plays in presidential contests, so US Presidential Elections and Foreign Policy is a welcome addition to a sparsely populated literature.
By James Everett Katz. New York: Praeger ,
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concern within European political science during the latter half of the competition, in which I discuss the decline of partisanship in policy-making and the discussion of the changing notions of party democracy, see Katz and Mair (). the recent reform that shortens the presidential term, it had become quite common.