Aerobic Endurance Exercise Benefits Memory And Affect In Young Adults Pdf

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Aerobic exercise reduces the risk of many health conditions, ranging from heart disease to dementia. Although all forms of physical activity provide some benefits, aerobic exercise is particularly effective because it causes the heart and lungs to work harder than usual. National physical activity guidelines recommend at least minutes of aerobic activity per week. In this article, we discuss some of the benefits that aerobic exercise offers the body and brain.

The Mental Health Benefits of Exercise

This study measured cognitive and vascular responses to aerobic training in sedentary young adults. Ten adults 6 women, 4 men; 18—29 years were randomly assigned to an experimental or no-treatment control group. Outcome measures included arterial stiffness augmentation index, AIx, and pulse pressure , cardiorespiratory fitness , and cognitive function attention, processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function.

Vascular and cognitive adaptations to aerobic training may move in parallel. Robust trials simultaneously investigating a broad spectrum of aerobic training interventions and vascular and cognitive outcomes are warranted. Epidemiological data have shown that higher levels of physical activity [ 2 — 4 ] and fitness [ 5 — 8 ] are associated with better cognitive function and protect against cognitive decline [ 9 ].

Moreover, a recent meta-analysis of 29 randomized controlled trials involving healthy and chronically diseased adults of all ages, including individuals with MCI, concluded that aerobic training for more than one month can significantly improve measures of cognitive function, including attention, processing speed, memory, and executive function i.

Accordingly, exercise interventions to prevent cognitive decline should be initiated or maintained in early adulthood when participation in strenuous physical activities is often markedly reduced [ 12 ]. Measures of arterial stiffness e. Evidence suggests that arterial stiffness is increased in MCI and dementia [ 15 , 16 ].

Moreover, arterial stiffness is strongly associated with atherosclerosis [ 17 ], and the relationship between cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment is well established [ 18 , 19 ]. Mitchell et al. Pase et al. Hence, arterial stiffness is associated with anatomical and functional deterioration of the brain [ 13 , 16 , 20 , 21 ].

Studies have consistently shown that measures of arterial stiffness, evaluated by means of various noninvasive methodologies, are inversely proportional to measures of cognitive function [ 13 , 21 — 23 ]. To date, there has been limited exploration of the vascular changes that underlie or accompany the exercise-induced improvement of cognitive function.

Aerobic training has been shown to improve arterial stiffness in young adults [ 24 ] and those with chronic cardiometabolic diseases [ 25 — 27 ]. This improvement of arterial stiffness, reflecting an improvement of the endothelium, may be one potential mechanism by which cognitive function can be enhanced. However, to our knowledge, no randomized controlled trial has simultaneously measured vascular and cognitive adaptations to aerobic training in an attempt to elucidate this link in sedentary young adults, a cohort who may be predisposed to cognitive impairment later in life.

The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of a 6-week aerobic training intervention on markers of cognitive function and arterial stiffness in a cohort of sedentary young adults aged 18—29 years. We hypothesized that aerobic training would significantly improve measures of cognitive function, including attention and processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function and that these changes would be concomitant with an improvement in arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness.

This pilot study followed a parallel group design comparing the outcomes from participants assigned to an experimental treatment group aerobic training with those assigned to a no-treatment control group. Measures relating to cognitive and cardiovascular function were collected prior to and following a 6-week intervention period.

Participants were randomly assigned via computer-generated blocks stratified by gender. An investigator not involved in data collection prepared the assignments, which were delivered to participants in sealed envelopes upon the completion of baseline testing.

The university ethics committee approved all research procedures, and written informed consent was received from all participants. Eligibility Criteria. Men and women aged 18—29 years, sedentary i. Participants exercised for 20 minutes on each of two ergometers: 1 Reebok Performance B5.

Training intensity for each participant was determined using the maximal heart rate obtained during the baseline assessment of. Participants randomised into the control group received no exercise intervention and were encouraged to maintain their normal lifestyle habits.

Outcome measures were collected in all participants prior to and following the 6-week intervention period at week 0 and week 7, respectively. Postintervention testing in the aerobic training group was completed 48—96 hours after the completion of the final exercise bout to allow for adequate recovery and to ensure that changes were independent of acute effects.

The week-7 measures were collected at the same time of day and same day of the week as baseline tests in order to control for the confounding effects of circadian rhythm. The specific tests used to evaluate each domain Table 1 have been extensively used and validated [ 29 — 32 ]. Aggregate scores for attention, working memory, and episodic memory were obtained by averaging the scores for the tests assessing each domain Table 1.

Scores for each test were obtained as the percentage of correct responses; higher values denoted better cognitive function. Processing speed was measured in milliseconds ms with lower scores denoting faster processing speed; aggregate scores were obtained by averaging the scores for the two tests assessing this domain Table 1.

Executive function was scored by total sum of errors on the card sorting task with lower scores representing better executive function. This session also served to minimize practice effects. Participants were instructed to avoid food and beverages for a minimum of 3 hours prior to testing. All measurements were collected with participants in a supine position. The average of three recordings for each measure was recorded.

Measures of arterial stiffness i. This system has the ability to derive the central aortic pressure waveform noninvasively from the pressure pulse recorded at a peripheral site.

The aortic pressure waveforms are comprised of a forward wave caused by left ventricular contraction and a reflected wave due to the backflow arising from regions of increased impedance in the peripheral vessels. Pulse pressure was automatically calculated by deducting the central diastolic pressure from the central systolic pressure. Augmentation index AIx , representing the extent to which the aortic pressure is augmented by reflected pressure waves, was calculated by dividing the augmentation pressure by the pulse pressure, multiplied by Given AIx is affected by factors such as ejection fraction and heart rate [ 33 ], the SphygmoCor algorithm normalizes AIx to a heart rate of 75 beats per minute.

This method is highly reproducible [ 34 ] and has been used extensively to evaluate arterial stiffness in healthy [ 24 , 35 ] and chronically diseased cohorts [ 27 ]. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed at baseline week 0 and followup week 7 to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercise intervention.

The ramp protocol started at either 5. Demographic and health status data were collected during the screening process and baseline testing by means of standard questionnaires and assessments.

Factors included demographic and morphometric data, including age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference, and concurrent medication, and supplement usage and dosage.

All available data were included regardless of participant compliance to the aerobic exercise intervention and analyses were completed according to intention-to-treat strategy, using the last-observation-carry-forward imputation method for any missing data.

Changes between the experimental and control group were determined by analysis of covariance ANCOVA of the posttreatment score controlling for the baseline score.

Twenty-nine individuals expressed an interest in participating in the trial Figure 1. Ten were excluded because they did not meet the entry criteria, while nine elected not to consent.

Ten participants 6 women and 4 men consented and were randomly assigned to the exercise or control group, only one participant was unavailable for follow-up testing. Baseline characteristics for the control group and the aerobic training group are presented in Table 2. No significant differences were detected between groups at baseline according to these descriptive characteristics all. Gender was equally distributed between the two groups i. The cohort ranged in age from 20 to 29 years; all participants were university students.

One participant in the control group was diagnosed with and medicated for anxiety, while another participant in the control group was medicated for hypercholesterolemia in week 5 of the intervention period.

None of the participants had diabetes, or a history or current use of cigarettes. All participants were normotensive at baseline and none were medicated for hypertension. No adverse events were reported or documented during the trial. All outcome measures are presented in Table 3.

The aerobic training group significantly reduced processing speed when compared to that of the control group ,. Central pulse pressure did not change between groups over time , , Table 3. However, central systolic and diastolic pressure showed trends toward improvement in the experimental versus control group Table 3.

No differences in resting brachial heart rate, diastolic or systolic blood pressure were detected between groups over time; however, direction of adaptation favoured the exercise group Table 3. Using a two-tailed test of significance with an alpha level of 0.

This pilot study investigated the effect of a 6-week aerobic training intervention on cognitive function, arterial stiffness, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of sedentary young adults. Participants assigned to the experimental group experienced statistically significant improvements in processing speed versus the control group.

However, other measures of cognitive function, including attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function did not differ between groups over time. However, central systolic and diastolic pressure showed trends toward improvement in the experimental versus control group. We acknowledge that our findings are preliminary and recognize the need for large-scale, well-controlled trials investigating the vascular mechanisms that underlie the exercise-induced improvement of cognitive function.

Targeting sedentary behaviour during adolescence and young adulthood is imperative for averting chronic diseases and for promoting general physical and mental health and well-being throughout life.

Notably, however, only a few trials have investigated the effect of prolonged aerobic training on measures of cognitive function in young populations [ 39 — 41 ] and none of these trials enrolled an entirely sedentary cohort. Interestingly, the majority of trials to date have investigated middle-aged and elderly cohorts [ 10 , 42 , 43 ], individuals that may be well beyond the peak of cognitive health [ 44 ].

Ideally, effective preventive therapies such as aerobic exercise should be undertaken earlier in life. In the present study, we noted an improvement of processing speed in our exercising participants.

This is a novel finding in sedentary young adults, though a similar effect has been noted in older women [ 45 ]. The improvement of processing speed may be particularly important in young adults given that this measure is associated with higher intelligence quotient [ 46 ] and academic aptitude [ 47 , 48 ].

Accordingly, meaningful improvements of processing speed could contribute to greater success in vocational and educational setting. Other benefits of aerobic training have been noted in young adults. Stroth et al. At the end of the intervention period, the exercise group significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness versus the control group.

The intervention, however, had no effect on verbal memory. In a subsequent study, Stroth et al. Hansen et al. Hence, there is some evidence to suggest that aerobic training improves measures of cognitive function in early adulthood. Few studies to date have measured changes in arterial stiffness in the context of aerobic training in young adults [ 49 — 51 ].

This is notable given that asymptomatic vascular changes can manifest early in life [ 52 , 53 ], while cross-sectional studies have indeed demonstrated that endurance-trained young adults have lower levels of arterial stiffness than less active peers [ 35 , 54 ]. Cameron and Dart [ 50 ] noted significant improvements in systemic arterial compliance i. This finding was supported by Kakiyama et al. Although our study showed no significant changes in AIx and pulse pressure, there are reasons to believe that aerobic exercise may improve arterial compliance, which is insensitive to AIx and pulse pressure measures.

For example, Currie et al.

Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations

We judge literacy and numeracy exercises as more beneficial for your brain than running, playing and learning on the move. When it comes to your brain, an oblique approach can be surprisingly effective. Moreover, specific physical activities can markedly alter its structure in precise ways. A wave of studies exploring the unexpected links between mental and bodily fitness is emerging from labs. This research might give you the impetus to get more active. It can also help you choose the best ways to prepare physically for mental challenges such as exams, interviews and creative projects. The part of the brain that responds strongly to aerobic exercise is the hippocampus.

Regular exercise changes the brain to improve memory, thinking skills

Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. There are plenty of good reasons to be physically active. Big ones include reducing the odds of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Maybe you want to lose weight, lower your blood pressure, prevent depression, or just look better.

Exercise is not just about aerobic capacity and muscle size. Sure, exercise can improve your physical health and your physique, trim your waistline, improve your sex life, and even add years to your life. People who exercise regularly tend to do so because it gives them an enormous sense of well-being. They feel more energetic throughout the day, sleep better at night, have sharper memories, and feel more relaxed and positive about themselves and their lives.

This study measured cognitive and vascular responses to aerobic training in sedentary young adults. Ten adults 6 women, 4 men; 18—29 years were randomly assigned to an experimental or no-treatment control group. Outcome measures included arterial stiffness augmentation index, AIx, and pulse pressure , cardiorespiratory fitness , and cognitive function attention, processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function.

Study aim. Material and methods.

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Никакой реакции. Он дернул шнурок в третий раз, более резко. И снова. - На маршруте двадцать семь их отсоединяют.  - Панк снова сплюнул в проход.  - Чтоб мы не надоедали. - Значит, я не могу сойти.

В огромной дешифровальной машине завелся вирус - в этом он был абсолютно уверен. Существовал только один разумный путь - выключить. Чатрукьян знал и то, что выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ можно двумя способами. Первый - с личного терминала коммандера, запертого в его кабинете, и он, конечно, исключался. Второй - с помощью ручного выключателя, расположенного в одном из ярусов под помещением шифровалки. Чатрукьян тяжело сглотнул. Он терпеть не мог эти ярусы.

 Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн. Смит сообщил: - Мы вели наблюдение из мини-автобуса с расстояния метров в пятьдесят. Вначале все шло гладко.

Техники сновали по комнате. Что-то подсказывало Сьюзан, что они близки к разгадке. - Мы можем это сделать! - сказала она, стараясь взять ситуацию под контроль.

Она посмотрела на него недовольно. В том, что касалось Мидж Милкен, существовали две вещи, которые никому не позволялось ставить под сомнение. Первой из них были предоставляемые ею данные.


Dominic L.
26.04.2021 at 06:48 - Reply

We found a significant increase in visuospatial memory performance and a significant increase in positive affect on a. We conclude that physical activity can possibly serve as a means to improve positively valenced aspects of affect and benefit visuospatial but not verbal memory in young adults.

Lily F.
28.04.2021 at 01:41 - Reply

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Marmion B.
01.05.2021 at 16:10 - Reply

Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations.

Lizie Г.
01.05.2021 at 23:19 - Reply

Aerobic endurance exercise benefits memory and affect in young adults. Full Article · Figures & data · References · Citations; Metrics; Reprints & Permissions · PDF.

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