Engine Lubricants Coolants And Additives Pdf


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engine lubricants coolants and additives pdf

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Engine Coolant Basics

The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR , Proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1HNMR , and gel permeation chromatography GPC for determination of molecular weight. All the prepared compounds were found to be soluble in lubricating oil. It was found that the additives have excellent power of dispersion, detergency, and the most efficient additives as antioxidant those prepared by using di- n -butyldithio phosphoric acid.

Lubricating oils play a crucial role in both domestic and industrial processes. Proper applications of lubricants increase the lifetime and efficiency of machinery and decrease long-term costs in terms of energy consumption, maintenance requirements and reduce operating temperatures [ 1 — 3 ]. The primary function of a lubricant is to create a film barrier between moving mechanical parts to reduce friction and wear.

Since the base oil alone would struggle to meet these challenging demands, performance-enhancing additives in tailor-made formulations are added to the lubricant formulation [ 4 , 5 ]. This product, known as a succinimide dispersant, was a relatively high molecular weight polyisobutenyl group attached to a polar end group [ 6 ]. Organic species in mineral oils and lubricants are subject to deterioration by oxidation, especially at high temperatures and in the presence of air or metal.

Such deterioration often leads to buildup of insoluble deposits or sludge and viscosity increase during use. In order to avoid the problems, lubricants need to possess superior oxidation stability [ 7 ].

Detergents and dispersants, often called DD or HD heavy-duty additives have been indispensable for the development of modern engine oils for gasoline and diesel combustion motors. These lubricants are especially exposed to severe stress due to the high temperatures and the additional influence of aggressive blow by gases of the combustion process [ 8 , 9 ].

The original definition of detergents refers to their cleaning properties similar to the detergents in washing agents although their function appears to be more of dispersing particulate matters such as abrasive wear and soot particles rather than cleaning up existing dirt [ 10 ]. The key function of a dispersant in an industrial or automotive lubricant formulation is to reduce oil thickening caused by accumulation and agglomeration of soot particles. In the present work, two propoxylated amines were prepared via reaction of propylene oxide with triethylenetetramine and tetraethylenepentamine.

One mole of propylene oxide PO and one mole of primary amines Triethylenetetramine and Tetraethylenepentamine were mixed in three-round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, reflux condenser, and thermometer. The reaction was carried out in three-round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, efficient condenser, and thermometer. In the flask was placed one mole of the prepared propoxylated amines and one mole of different organic acids stearic acid, dodecylbenzensulphonic acid, and di- n -butyldithiophosphoric acid.

The prepared compounds were characterized by using FT-IR. The prepared compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The conical flask was immersed in an oil bath placed on a thermostated hot plate fixed over a magnetic stirrer.

These samples were tested for:. The spectra have been superimposed upon that of unoxidized oil. The absorbance A has been calculated according to. The operation is repeated until the sludge is washed completely free of oil.

The washing efficiency is measured by thin layer chromatography method. It aims to evaluate how effective the additives are in removing the impurities from the surface. The different additives bring the carbon black in different heights on the paper based on the washing efficiency of the additive. The washing efficiency is measured in millimeters between the point where the suspension was put and the height where the oil brings the suspension with the heptane. The detergent index characterizes the dispersion stabilizing efficiency of the additive, thus how they keep the impurities in a dispersed phase.

The test is based on centrifugation. The infrared spectrum of product A is given in Fig. The infrared spectrum of product A 2 is given in Fig. It was found that compound B 3 is the best as lube oil antioxidants, followed by B 2 , and then compound B 1 comes later. The efficiency of the prepared compound B 3 compared with the other is because it contains amino groups and also Di-n-butyldithiophosphoric acid which have antioxidant character.

The results of additives of different acid products are given in Figs. It is clear that the addition of these compounds not only disperses solid particles in the oil and thus prevents their agglomeration and precipitation on metallic parts of engines that can cause damage, but also neutralizes some of the acidic products of oxidation due to their basic nature. It is clear from the data that increasing the NH groups in the structures of the prepared compounds, increases their capacity in dispersing sludge and solid particles into lube oil samples used, this may be explained by the fact that the NH groups form hydrogen bonds with polar groups of oxidation products.

It was also confirmed that the polar group NH and OH of the prepared additives has an active role in the mechanism of detergent action.

It was found that the prepared additive B 3 has synergistic effect with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate and increases its efficiency as an antioxidant. Synthesis of propoxylated amines using different primary amines, then the products which were obtained react with different organic acids. It was found that all the prepared additives have excellent power of dispersion and detergency. It was found that the efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidants increases with increasing the number of NH group and by using of di-n-butyldithiophosphoric acid.

Am J Appl Sci 3 12 — Anal Chim Acta 1 — Fuel 88 2 — Vib Spectrosc 37 1 — London, New York, pp — Google Scholar. Int J Polym Mater 55 9 — Thermochim Acta 1 — Rizvi SQA Lubricant additives: a comprehensive review of lubricant chemistry, technology, selection, and design. Rijeka, Croatia, 55— J Dispersion Sci Technol 30 2 — Ind Eng Chem Anal Ed 13 5 — Chem Technol Fuels Oils 15 3 — J Dispersion Sci Technol 32 7 — Dispersion Sci Technol — Download references.

Nehal S. Correspondence to Nehal S. Reprints and Permissions. Ahmed, N. Appl Petrochem Res 6, 49—58 Download citation. Received : 20 November Accepted : 12 May Published : 31 May Issue Date : March Search SpringerLink Search. Download PDF. Introduction Lubricating oils play a crucial role in both domestic and industrial processes.

Experimental Synthesis of propoxylated amines One mole of propylene oxide PO and one mole of primary amines Triethylenetetramine and Tetraethylenepentamine were mixed in three-round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, reflux condenser, and thermometer. Reaction of triethylenetetramine with propylene oxide. Full size image.

Reaction of tetraethylenepentamine with propylene oxide. Infrared spectrum of compound A. Reaction of product A with stearic acid. Reaction of product A with dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid. Reaction of product A with di- n -butyldithiophosphoric acid. Infrared spectrum of compound A 2. Conclusion The conclusions that could be derived from the results of this study are: Synthesis of propoxylated amines using different primary amines, then the products which were obtained react with different organic acids.

All the prepared compounds are soluble in lubricating oil SAE References 1. Rijeka, Croatia, 55—76 El-Kafrawy Authors Nehal S. Ahmed View author publications. View author publications. About this article. Cite this article Ahmed, N.

Diesel engine oil temperature range

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The coolants and their mixtures with water are used in a single-cylinder diesel engine running on gas oil fuel. Heat flux and wall temperatures.


LUBRICANT ADDITIVES

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The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR , Proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1HNMR , and gel permeation chromatography GPC for determination of molecular weight. All the prepared compounds were found to be soluble in lubricating oil. It was found that the additives have excellent power of dispersion, detergency, and the most efficient additives as antioxidant those prepared by using di- n -butyldithio phosphoric acid. Lubricating oils play a crucial role in both domestic and industrial processes. Proper applications of lubricants increase the lifetime and efficiency of machinery and decrease long-term costs in terms of energy consumption, maintenance requirements and reduce operating temperatures [ 1 — 3 ].

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Revision This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content. Full access requires DieselNet subscription. Please log in to view the complete version of this paper. As the base oil alone cannot provide all of the lubricating oil functions required in modern engines, the additive package has evolved to play an increasingly important role in the oil formulation. The base oil is composed of a base stock or a blend of a number of base stocks. Base stocks from petroleum feed stocks may be manufactured using a variety of different processes including distillation, solvent refining, hydrogen processing, oligomerization, esterification, and rerefining.

Coolant or antifreeze protects your engine from freezing while defending components against corrosion. It plays a critical role in sustaining engine heat balance by removing heat. In a heavy-duty diesel engine, only one-third of the total energy produced works to propel the vehicle forward. An additional one-third is removed as heat energy by the exhaust system. The remaining one-third of heat energy produced is taken away by the engine coolant. This heat removed by the coolant provides a balance in the removal of engine heat that is critical in ensuring that the engine operates properly.


Lubricants, Lubricant Additives, Coolants and Anti-freeze Agents engine ethylene glycol (CAS No. ) is the common name for 1.


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Diesel Super Coolant

It is often said that coolants are a commodity, which is true in part, but refers only to the base fluid. The real value of a coolant, and that which differentiates one from another, is the additive or inhibitor package which makes up the balance at only about 2. Coolants are only differentiated from each other through their inhibitor additives and their dyes. In this post, we will look into OAT family of coolants, their types, and why their chemistry has revolutionized the engine coolant industry in the last two decades. Finally, the inorganic oxides often react with the minerals in the water to cause defective deposits that clog the cooling system—these water-based problems are intrinsic to nation, as you will find out. OAT coolants, on the other hand, use carboxylic acids as the main inhibitors within their product. Carboxylic acids form carboxylates during the heating process, and these compounds deplete far more slowly compared to the inorganic counterparts, while also preventing corrosion as effectively.

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As an industry-leading source of high-end, stress-tested coolant treatments, lubricants and fuel system cleaners, Hy-per Lube offers premium-quality diesel coolant capable of standing up to your most demanding applications. Hy-per Lube Diesel Super Coolant is the product of choice for everyone from motorsports and off-road enthusiasts to those working in industrial applications who understand the importance of quality and reliability. Diesel Super Coolant utilizes reserve alkalinity to maintain safe pH levels to safeguard wet sleeve cylinder liners from erosion. Take confidence in the product proven to reduce engine temperatures significantly and prevent diesel systems from overheating.

Diesel engine additive. Extends the interval between oil changes. It extends motor life.

Engine Coolant Basics

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Eluhuei R.
25.04.2021 at 07:18 - Reply

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