Ac Power Plugs And Sockets PdfBy Opurwoytfal In and pdf 22.04.2021 at 04:51 10 min read
File Name: ac power plugs and sockets .zip
AC power plugs and sockets are devices that allow electrically operated equipment to be connected to the primary alternating current AC power supply in a building. Electrical plugs and sockets differ in voltage and current rating, shape, size and type of connectors. The types used in each country are set by national standards, some of which are listed in the IEC technical report TR , Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC.
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AC power plugs and sockets connect electric equipment to the alternating current AC power supply in buildings and at other sites. Electrical plugs and sockets differ from one another in voltage and current rating, shape, size, and connector type.
Different standard systems of plugs and sockets are used around the world. Plugs and sockets for portable appliances became available in the s, to replace connections to light sockets with wall-mounted outlets. A proliferation of types developed for both convenience and protection from electrical injury. Today there are about 20 types in common use around the world, and many obsolete socket types are found in older buildings.
Coordination of technical standards has allowed some types of plug to be used across large regions to facilitate trade in electrical appliances, and for the convenience of travellers and consumers of imported electrical goods.
Some multi-standard sockets allow use of several types of plug; improvised or unapproved adaptors between incompatible sockets and plugs may not provide the full safety and performance of an approved socket-plug combination. A plug is the movable connector attached to an electrically operated device, and the socket is fixed on equipment or a building structure and connected to an energised electrical circuit. The plug is a male connector with protruding pins that match the openings and female contacts in a socket.
Some plugs have female contacts that are used only for an earth ground connection. Some plugs have built-in fuses for safety. To reduce the risk of electric shock , plug and socket systems have safety features in addition to the recessed contacts of the energised socket. These may include plugs with insulated sleeves, recessed sockets, or automatic shutters to block socket apertures when a plug is removed. A socket may be surrounded by a decorative or protective cover  which may be integral with the socket.
Single-phase sockets have two current-carrying connections to the power supply circuit, and may also have a third pin for a safety connection to earth ground. Depending on the supply system, one or both current-carrying connections may have significant voltage to earth ground.
When commercial electric power was first introduced in the s, it was used primarily for lighting. Other portable appliances such as vacuum cleaners, electric fans, smoothing irons, and curling-tong heaters were connected to light-bulb sockets. As early as a two-pin plug and wall socket format was available on the British market. By about the first three-pin earthed grounded plugs appeared.
Over time other safety improvements were gradually introduced to the market. The earliest national standard for plug and wall socket forms was set in Designs of plugs and sockets have gradually developed to reduce the risk of electric shock and fire. Plugs are shaped to prevent finger contact with live parts, and sockets may be recessed. Some types can also include fuses and switches. Shutters on the socket prevents foreign objects from contacting live contacts.
The first shuttered socket was introduced by British manufacturer Crompton, in Electrical insulation of the pin shanks to reduce live contact exposure was added to some designs, as early as A third contact for a connection to earth is intended to protect against insulation failure of the connected device.
Some early unearthed plug and socket types were revised to include an earthing pin or phased out in favour of earthed types. The plug is often designed so that the earth ground contact connects before the energized circuit contacts.
The assigned IEC appliance class is governed by the requirement for earthing or equivalent protection. Class I equipment requires an earth contact in the plug and socket, while Class II equipment is unearthed and protects the user with double insulation. Where a "neutral" conductor exists in supply wiring, polarisation of the plug can improve safety by preserving the distinction in the equipment.
For example, appliances may ensure that switches interrupt the line side of the circuit, or can connect the shell of a screw-base lampholder to neutral to reduce electric shock hazard. In some designs, polarised plugs cannot be mated with non-polarised sockets. Wiring systems where both circuit conductors have a significant potential with respect to earth, do not benefit from polarised plugs. In some jurisdictions, they violate safety standards for sockets.
Safety advocates, the United States Army,  and a manufacturer of sockets  point out a number of safety issues with universal socket and adapters, including voltage mismatch, exposure of live pins, lack of proper earth ground connection, or lack of protection from overload or short circuit.
Universal sockets may not meet technical standards for durability, plug retention force, temperature rise of components, or other performance requirements, as they are outside the scope of national and international technical standards. A technical standard may include compatibility of a socket with more than one form of plug. Chinese dual sockets have both an unearthed socket complying with figure 5 of GB both flat pin and 4. A so-called "universal socket", which meets no official standard  but is intended to accept a number of different plug types.
An earthed Thai socket that appears to comply with figure 4 of TIS Plugs and power cords have a rated voltage and current assigned to them by the manufacturer. Using a plug or power cord that is inappropriate for the load may be a safety hazard. For example, high-current equipment can cause a fire when plugged into an extension cord with a current rating lower than necessary.
So that manufacturers need not build many similar appliances differing only in the type of plug fitted, a common strategy is to provide an IEC inlet on the appliance and a detachable power cord mains flex lead and appropriate plug. The appliance need only to be tested to the power inlet. Some appliances have a switch for selection of voltage. Extension cords extension leads are used for temporary connections when a socket is not within convenient reach of an appliance's power lead.
A power strip with multiple sockets may also have a switch, surge voltage protection, or over-current protection. Special purpose sockets may be found in residential, industrial, commercial or institutional buildings.
Examples of systems using special purpose sockets include:. Special-purpose sockets may be labelled or coloured to identify a reserved use of a system, or may have keys or specially shaped pins to prevent use of unintended equipment.
National wiring regulations sometimes prohibit the use of sockets adjacent to water taps, etc. A special socket, with an isolation transformer , may allow electric razors to be used near a sink. Because the isolation transformer is of low rating, such outlets are not suitable to operate higher-powered appliances such as blow dryers.
This provides the full capacity of a standard receptacle but protects the user of a razor or other appliance from leakage current. The International Electrotechnical Commission IEC maintains a guide with letter designations for generally compatible types of plugs,  which expands on earlier guides published by the United States Department of Commerce.
This is a de facto naming standard and guide to travellers. Some letter types correspond to several current ratings or different technical standards, so the letter does not uniquely identify a plug and socket within the type family, nor guarantee compatibility.
Physical compatibility of the plug and socket does not ensure correct voltage, frequency, or current capacity. Not all plug and socket families have letters in the IEC guide, but those that have are noted in this article, as are some additional letters commonly used by retail vendors. The flat pins for the 10 A version measure 6.
The pin length is the same as in the Chinese version. The earthing pin length is On the plugs, the pole length is The most important difference from the Australian plug is that the Argentinian plug is wired with the line and neutral contacts reversed.
In Brazil, similar plugs and sockets are still commonly used in old installations for high-power appliances like air conditioners, dishwashers, and household ovens. Although being often called "Argentinian plug," it is actually based on the American NEMA standard, and is incompatible [ how?
It defines a plug with an earthing pin, and two flat current-carrying pins which form an inverted V-shape. Australian and New Zealand wall sockets locally often referred to as power points almost always have switches on them for extra safety, as in the UK. An unearthed version of this plug with two angled power pins but no earthing pin is used with double-insulated appliances, but the sockets always include an earth contact.
These sockets accept plugs of equal or lower current rating, but not higher. In Australia these piggy-back plugs are now available only on pre-made extension leads. The requirement for insulated pins was introduced in the revision. NBR does not require shutters on the apertures, a further aspect of non-compliance with IEC NBR was not enforced in that country until , when its adoption was made optional for manufacturers.
It became compulsory on 1 January Few private houses in Brazil have an earthed supply, so even if a three-pin socket is present it is not safe to assume that all three terminals are actually connected.
Most large domestic appliances were sold with the option to fit a flying earth tail to be locally earthed, but many consumers were unsure how to use this and so didn't connect it. The new standard has an earth pin, which in theory eliminates the need for the flying earth tail.
The plugs have three round pins arranged in a triangle, with the larger top pin being the earthing pin. The plugs are polarised and unfused. Plugs are non-interchangeable between current ratings. BS "13 A plugs, socket-outlets, adaptors and connection units"  is the main plug and socket type used in the United Kingdom.
According to the IEC  it is also used in over 50 countries worldwide. This plug has three rectangular pins forming an isosceles triangle.
The BS plug has a fuse rated to protect the appliance and its flexible cord from overload and consequent fire risk. Modern appliances may only be sold with a fuse of the appropriate size pre-installed. The United Kingdom, Ireland, and Malta, use the BS two-pin plug and socket for electric shavers and toothbrushes.
Although similar to the Europlug Type C, the diameter and spacing of the pins are slightly different and hence it will not fit into a Schuko socket. There are, however, two-pin sockets and adaptors which will accept both BS and Europlugs.
It was last updated by Modification 4 in March CE marking is neither applicable nor permitted on plugs and sockets. Because they have no earth connections they have been or are being phased out in most countries. Some countries still permit their use in dry areas.
AC power plugs and sockets
IEC ED5 Plugs, fixed or portable socket-outlets and appliance inelts for industrial purposes - Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube accessories. IEC ED2 Plugs, fixed or portable socket-outlets and appliance inlets for industrial purposes - Part 4: Switched socket-outlets and connectors, with or without interlock. IEC ED4 Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 1: General requirements. IEC ED3 Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles - Part 2: Dimensional compatibility requirements for AC pin and contact-tube accessories. IEC ED1 Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets — Conductive charging of electric vehicles — Part 6: Dimensional compatibility requirements for DC pin and contact-tube vehicle couplers for DC EV supply equipment where protection relies on electrical separation.
AC power plugs and sockets connect electric equipment to the alternating current AC power supply in buildings and at other sites. Electrical plugs and sockets differ from one another in voltage and current rating, shape, size, and connector type. Different standard systems of plugs and sockets are used around the world. Plugs and sockets for portable appliances became available in the s, to replace connections to light sockets with wall-mounted outlets. A proliferation of types developed for both convenience and protection from electrical injury.
Power connectors allow electronic devices to connect to available power outlets. An example of AC power would be power that is provided by a standard wall outlet in a home or office. An example of DC power would be power that is provided by a battery. There are several different types of connectors and interfaces that are used all over the world. The power connectors shown here are some of the more common connectors used in North America. NEMA is an acronym that stands for the National Electrical Manucturers Association, an industry group that sets standards for use in electrical products. The connector has two flat parallel blades, with a round ground pin located between and above them.
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One of the ideas for this page is visual matching for things you are likely to find, another point is to show comparable connectors. Usually carries audio, occasionally basic signalling. The 3. Most commonly seen in the 3. You also see the 2.
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