Flavor Chemistry Of Fats And Oils Pdf File


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Cooking oil

Provincial regulations may also have labelling requirements that apply when these products are sold within that province. The labelling requirements detailed in the following section are specific to fats and oils. Refer to the Industry Labelling Tool for core labelling and voluntary claims and statements requirements that apply to all prepackaged foods. For fat and oil products that meet one of the standards prescribed in Division 9 of the FDR , the name appearing in bold-face type in the FDR is the appropriate common name of that product.

Where there is no specific standard for a fat or oil in the FDR or other federal regulations, other national or international standards are referred to in order to determine an appropriate common name. For example, if there is a specific definition for a fat or oil in a Codex Standard , the Codex defined name of the fat or oil including one of its acceptable synonyms would be an acceptable common name of the food.

In order to use the Codex defined name of the food, the fat or oil is expected to meet the compositional requirements for it as set out in the Codex standard. For more information, including placement, language and type size of common name, refer to Common Name.

Fats and oils used as ingredients in foods must be declared by their common name in the list of ingredients or, where there is a provision, by a class name. Refer to the List of Ingredients - Fats and Oils for more information. The common name of a vegetable oil that contains only one oil must be the specific name of the one oil present, i.

The general term "vegetable oil" is not an acceptable common name by itself, although it may appear in addition to "canola oil".

For information on the declaration of single or multi-source vegetable oils in the list of ingredients, see Single or Multi-Source Vegetable Oils. When a single oil has been modified or hydrogenated, the common name on the principal display panel and in the list of ingredients must include the word "modified" or "hydrogenated", as appropriate, e.

When two or more vegetable oils are present and one or more of them has been modified or hydrogenated, the common name on the principal display panel and in the list of ingredients must include the word "modified" or "hydrogenated", as appropriate, e.

The common name for mixtures of regular and modified vegetable oils can be "modified vegetable oil". Alternatively, a common name can be used which incorporates the individual ingredients of the product. Since interesterification is not hydrogenation or modification, the FDR do not specifically require that "interesterification" be declared in the common name of the product. However, the CFIA encourages the use of the common name "interesterified naming the vegetable oil " unless the final food meets the standard for shortening [B.

Some oils have been developed with nutritional profiles that differ from the traditional oil made from the same plant source. In most cases, these foods are subject to Health Canada's novel food assessment process. Common names must accurately reflect the nature of the food. As such, an acceptable common name for an oil with a modified nutritional profile includes:.

These specifications can be used to determine if the nutritional profile of a modified oil falls outside of the range of the traditional oil from the same plant source. When there is a nutritional difference from the traditional oil, this needs to be reflected in the common name. Representations in the common name that characterize the amount of a fatty acid in vegetable oil are generally permitted - for example "High Oleic naming the source Oil" [B. There may be more than one way to describe the nutritional difference in the common name, such as when the content of more than one fatty acid has changed e.

Note that in some cases, such as for high oleic acid sunflower seed oil, there is a Codex standard for the modified oil as well. This type of common name e. See Modified Fatty Acid Content Oil for information on Nutrition Labelling requirements when a representation in the common name characterizes the amount of a fatty acid. The common name "canola oil" is acceptable on the label of oil produced from low erucic acid Brassica juncea.

As there is no prescribed name for the oil of this plant in the Food and Drug Regulations or any other federal legislation, any of the names prescribed in the Codex Standard would be acceptable. This approach is consistent with CFIA 's Seed Program, which recognizes the name "Canola quality, Brassica juncea " for this plant and lists it under "canola" on the website index of varieties registered in Canada.

This product has gone through a novel food assessment by Health Canada. Flavoured extra virgin olive oil could be described using the principles for Modified Standardized Common Names if the flavour is added as an ingredient and not used in its production. If used in the production of the extra virgin olive oil, the oil would be adulterated and would not meet the standard.

The common names listed above are acceptable because they are modified with the additional ingredient and it is clear that the product is not just extra virgin olive oil. See Modified Fatty Acid Content Oil and Oils with Modified Nutritional Profiles for more information on the labelling requirements when a representation in the common name characterizes the amount of a fatty acid.

The common name "Liquid Shortening" is an acceptable common name for products that function as shortenings but that are in liquid form, rather than in "semi-solid" form as described in the standard for shortening. Medium chain triglycerides may be used as foods or food ingredients.

When sold as a food, the acceptable common name is "Medium Chain Triglycerides". The abbreviation "MCT" is not acceptable. A label declaration of the source of the medium chain triglycerides, preferably on the principal display panel, is also recommended to alert allergic or sensitive individuals, e. For information on mid-oleic sunflower oil that has gone through a Health Canada novel food assessment, see Health Canada's page on Approved Products.

This is based on usages sanctioned by certain foreign governments and by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Palm olein, palm stearin and palm superolein are produced from the fractionation of palm oil. All other fractions of palm oil should be called "modified palm oil" when sold as a food.

The common name of a vegetable diacylglycerol oil should be "Vegetable diacylglycerol oil" or " naming the source diacylglycerol oil". For information on vegetable diacylglycerol oil that has gone through a Health Canada novel food assessment, see Health Canada's page on approved products.

The same list of ingredients requirements and exemptions that apply to all foods also apply to fats and oils. Refer to list of ingredients for more information. Certain fats and oils, when declared in the list of ingredients, are required to use specific mandatory common names.

There are other fats and oils, when declared in the list of ingredients, that may optionally be listed using collective or class names. A number of fat and oil products, when used as ingredients in foods, are usually exempt from declaring components in the list of ingredients. These include margarine, shortening, lard, and, in certain situations, standardized oils.

In general, when a single source of " naming the source oil" is used as an ingredient in another food, it may be listed in the list of ingredients either specifically by name, e. Also, when vegetable oil containing more than one kind of vegetable oil is used as an ingredient in another food, it may be listed in the list of ingredients as "vegetable oil". Hydrogenated vegetable oil must be declared as "hydrogenated" plus "vegetable oil" or "hydrogenated naming the vegetable oil " in the list of ingredients [B.

In order to meet the regulation intended to inform consumers that the oil may have been hydrogenated within a month period [B.

Note: As per subsection B. If it is more likely that "hydrogenated canola oil" will be present in the product, the above declarations would not be acceptable. Instead, a declaration such as "hydrogenated canola oil or canola oil" would have to be used. When the common name "modified vegetable oil" is used, a list of ingredients naming the individual oils is also required.

When a common name that includes all of the oils in a mixture is used, such as "canola oil and modified sunflower oil", it is considered satisfy both the common name and list of ingredients requirements. This means that a separate list of ingredients is not required, providing there are no other ingredients than the oils mentioned.

When medium chain triglycerides are added as an ingredient of foods, the acceptable common name in the list of ingredients must reflect the source of the medium chain triglycerides, e. Refer to the Food and Drug Regulations, paragraph B. It is recommended that the words "medium chain triglycerides" be shown in brackets after the ingredient to identify the product of the modification, e.

Shortening containing vegetable oil or partially hydrogenated vegetable oil must be listed in the list of ingredients of a food as "vegetable oil shortening" unless it contains one of the fats that must be mentioned by name, e. Shortening containing lard should be called "lard shortening".

Shortening does not have to be qualified in the list of ingredients as "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated". Spray dried shortening is an unstandardized food which cannot be listed as a vegetable oil shortening but can be listed as a spray dried shortening preparation in the list of ingredients. All of the components must be listed.

It is generally not acceptable to use adjectives and descriptive phrases that describe or imply nutrient content characteristics of an ingredient in the list of ingredients, e. For more information see Implied Nutrient Content Claims. See Additional Information in the List of Ingredients for further details. Some oils include a reference to the fatty acid content in the common name, such as "high oleic [naming the source] oil".

Subsection B. It is important to pay close attention to the wording of the item in column 1 when determining if additional information is triggered in the Nutrition Facts table NFt by subsection B. For example, item 8 of the table following B. The term "high" in "high oleic [naming the source] oil" is considered to imply an amount.

In addition, information in the list of ingredients is considered a "representation". Therefore when "high oleic naming the source oil" is represented anywhere on the label, including in the list of ingredients, the requirements are as follows:. Note: If a product is exempt from carrying a NFt as per subsection B. For more information on the common name of these oils, refer to Oils with Modified Nutritional Profiles.

Currently, there are no definitions for "extra virgin" applicable to any vegetable oil except for olive oil. Quality specifications for "extra virgin" olive oil exist in the trade standards for olive oil issued by the International Olive Oil Council and by the U. Department of Agriculture. These standards require, among other things, that the extra virgin olive oil must be cold pressed, does not contain any refined olive oil, and possesses superior quality based on chemical composition and sensory characteristics.

Therefore, vegetable oils other than olive oil may use the term "virgin" or "cold pressed" if they meet the criteria for these quality designations. Because there are no internationally recognized standards that define "extra virgin" for other vegetable oils, the use of the term "extra virgin" is only acceptable for olive oil. However, in Quebec, a declaration of the percentage of each type of oil or fat of the total fat in margarine is mandatory on the container or package of margarine under the Quebec Food Product Regulations.

The CFIA has no objection to oil content declarations for margarine on the PDP as long as the basis for determining the percentages is clear to consumers.

Percent declarations can be based on either:. Note: When oil content declarations are based on the total fat content in margarine, it is also acceptable to add separate declarations in the list of ingredients for each type of oil by total weight of the product.

This will provide valuable information on relative proportions of some ingredients. When oil content declarations are made, all the oils used in making the margarine should be named using proper common names. For example, if margarine is made from a mixture of corn oil, cotton seed oil and soybean oil, it would be considered misleading to refer only to the corn oil content.

On the other hand, the mixture of oils could be correctly referred to as "vegetable oils".

Animal and Vegetable Fats, Oils and Waxes

Fats and oils are important for good health. Although fats and oils are not considered a food group, it is recommended that we consume them in small amounts. Fats provide your body with energy and essential fatty acids and enable your body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. Oils are needed in the diet in small amounts because they are a major source of vitamin E, which has antioxidant properties. Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, and linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, are essential for health. There are many different types of dietary fats and oils. These include saturated fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and trans fats.

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Provincial regulations may also have labelling requirements that apply when these products are sold within that province. The labelling requirements detailed in the following section are specific to fats and oils. Refer to the Industry Labelling Tool for core labelling and voluntary claims and statements requirements that apply to all prepackaged foods. For fat and oil products that meet one of the standards prescribed in Division 9 of the FDR , the name appearing in bold-face type in the FDR is the appropriate common name of that product. Where there is no specific standard for a fat or oil in the FDR or other federal regulations, other national or international standards are referred to in order to determine an appropriate common name. For example, if there is a specific definition for a fat or oil in a Codex Standard , the Codex defined name of the fat or oil including one of its acceptable synonyms would be an acceptable common name of the food.

Vegetable oil

Fats and oils predominantly are triesters triacylglycerols, triglycerides of glycerol and aliphatic fatty acids generally containing up to 24 carbon atoms. Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids, usually containing 24 to 28 carbon atoms, with long-chain primary alcohols 16 to 36 carbon atoms , or with alcohols of the steroid group. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dippings like bread dips, and may be called edible oil. Cooking oil is typically a liquid at room temperature, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil , palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid. There is a wide variety of cooking oils from plant sources such as olive oil , palm oil , soybean oil , canola oil rapeseed oil , corn oil , peanut oil and other vegetable oils , as well as animal-based oils like butter and lard.

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Labelling requirements for fats and oils

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